The TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) emerged in Japan through the efforts of the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) as a sys-tem designed to achieve the elimination of six big losses of equipment for the purpose of power make it feasible to production "Just in Time", which has as its primary objective the systematic elimination of waste.
These six big losses aredirectly or indirectly related-swim with the teams leading to reductions in the efficiency of the production system in three key areas:
• time outs or stoppage of production system.
• Operation at lower speed than the capacity of the equipment.
• Defective products or malfunction in equipment operations.
The TPM is now one of the critical systems-grate the total efficiency, based on which it isfeasible to achieve full competitiveness. The current trend to increasingly enhance the competitiveness is rising in unison and in a maximum degree of efficiency in action, time and cost of production and involves the company in conjunction with TPM .
The traditional industrial company is normally equipped with management systems based on large series production with little variety of productsand long preparation times, with long lead times also employed with highly specified training and quality control based on product inspection. When the company has indicated emigrating from this system to other lighter and less expensive, has needed to improve delivery times, costs and quality simultaneously.
Concepts and definitions
The goal of maintenance of machines and equipmentwe can define how to achieve a given level of availability of production in terms of quality required, at minimum cost and with maximum safety-mo for staff that use and maintain.
Availability refers to the proportion of time that is willing to start production from the total time. This availability depends on two critical factors:
1. the frequency of breakdowns,
2. the time needed torepair them.
The first of these factors is called reliability, is an Indians of the quality of facilities and their conservation status, measured by the average time between failures.
The second factor called maintainability is represented by a part of the goodness of the design of facilities and the other part of the efficiency of maintenance services. It is calculated as the inverse of theaverage repair time of a breakdown.
Accordingly, an appropriate level of availability will be achieved with optimum levels of reliability and maintainability. That is, expressed by, everyday language, the occurrence of few failures and that they are repaired quickly.
Evolution of Maintenance Management
To reach the Total Productive Maintenance had to go through three previous stages.Being the first on Maintenance Repair (or reagent), which is based exclusively on the breakdown. Only came to maintenance work on the detection of a fault or failure and, following completion of the repair everything was there.
Subsequently and as a second phase of development resulted in what was called preventative maintenance. With this methodology paper seeks above all things the greaterprofitability based on maximum production, settling for this maintenance functions aimed at detecting and / or prevent possible failures before they occurred.
In the sixties saw the emergence of Maintenance Productive, which is the third phase of development before reaching the TPM. Productive Maintenance includes preventive maintenance principles, but adds a maintenance plan for the entire lifeof the equipment, more work and indicators to improve reliability and maintainability.
Finally we get to TPM which begins to be implemented in Japan during the sixties. It incorporates a series of new concepts developed to previous methods, including autonomous maintenance should be highlighted, which is executed by production workers, active participation of all the employees, from top...