• Language as Communications: Oral and Written Language.
• Factors that define a communicative situation: sender, Receiver,
functionality and Context. | |
We will begin this unit by first describing Language as a set of linguistic signs that are interrelated according to certain rules that the sender and the receiver are familiarized with.However, the Communication consist of an act whereby an individual establishes contact with another and transmits information to him, for example, a child crying because she is hungry.
As far as human communication is concerned, we will say that it takes place via spoken or written language. Also it can take place via visual, tactile, sound and olfactory.
So, in this unit we will focuson communication, on the one hand we are going to study the speech and writing and the factors that intervene in a communicative act.
1. LANGUAGE AS COMMUNICATION
Chomsky said that “a language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements”. Since a functional point of view language is a complex activity with two basicfunctions: communicating and representing.
2. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE:
During the centuries there have distinguished, 3 views of language:
➢ Language-as-product: when we make language as an object of study.
➢ Language-as-tool: when we emphasize the way to use language to operate upon the environment.
➢ Language-as-activity: when we move into pragmatic, in order to use language as asocial event.
3. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE:
Communication is the exchange and negotiation of information between two or more people through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, oral and written/visual modes.
Written and spoken language is the most useful of all the language codes employed by humans as a mean of transmitting thoughts, feelings, experiences and opinions.
Thecommunicative competence is what Hymes said the main goal of language teaching to develop. Chomsky said that an able speaker has a subconscious knowledge of the grammar rules of his language which allows him to make sentences in that language. However, Hymes thought that Chomsky had forgotten something: The Rules of Use, which includes the Knowledge of where and when to use those sentences and to whom.So, Hymes separated the native speaker’s knowledge about language into 4 categories:
• Systematic Potencial: it means that the native speaker possesses a system that has a potencial for creating a lot of language.
• Appropriacy: that native speaker knows what language is appropriate in a given situation depending on the: setting, participants, purpose, channel, and topic.
•Occurrence: the native speaker knows how often something is said in the language and acts accordingly.
• Feasibility: the native speaker knows if something is possible in the language or not.
These four categories have been adapted for teaching purposes in the Royal Decree 1513/2006 of 7th December, which insists that the aim of Primary School is to teach students to communicate in that foreignlanguage. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop a communicative competence. Canale and Swain, said that this have 4 subcompetences.
➢ Grammar Competence: it is the ability to put into practice the rules of how the language works.
➢ Discourse Competence: it is the ability to use different discourses and organize them according to the communicative situation.
➢ SociolinguisticCompetence: it is the ability to put the structures and expressions into the correct context.
➢ Strategic competence: it is the ability to use all the linguistic and extra linguistic resources.
➢ Sociocultural competence.
4. FUNCTIONS OF THE LANGUAGE.
Language is an “instrument” that we can use for different purposes. Each one of those purposes is called a function. We are going to...