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PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE DESIGN CONCEPTS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE DESIGN CONCEPTS
David A. Watt, University of Glasgow
with contributions by

William Findlay, University of Glasgow

Copyright  2004

John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (+44) 1243 779777

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Other Wiley Editorial Offices John Wiley & Sons Inc., 111 RiverStreet, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA Jossey-Bass, 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741, USA Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Boschstr. 12, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 33 Park Road, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop #02-01, Jin Xing Distripark, Singapore 129809 John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke,Ontario, Canada M9W 1L1 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Watt, David A. (David Anthony) Programming language design concepts / David A. Watt ; with contributions by William Findlay. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN0-470-85320-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Programming languages (Electronic computers) I. Findlay, William, 1947- II. Title. QA76.7 .W388 2004 005.13 – dc22 2003026236 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-470-85320-4 Typeset in 10/12pt TimesTen by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India Printed and bound inGreat Britain by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production.

To Carol

Contents

Preface

xv

Part I: Introduction
1 Programming languages 1.1 Programming linguistics 1.1.1 Concepts and paradigms 1.1.2 Syntax, semantics, and pragmatics1.1.3 Language processors 1.2 Historical development Summary Further reading Exercises

1
3 3 3 5 6 6 10 10 10

Part II: Basic Concepts
2 Values and types 2.1 Types 2.2 Primitive types 2.2.1 Built-in primitive types 2.2.2 Defined primitive types 2.2.3 Discrete primitive types 2.3 Composite types 2.3.1 Cartesian products, structures, and records 2.3.2 Mappings, arrays, and functions 2.3.3...
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