Nikola Tesla's original polyphase power system was based on simple to build 2-phase components. However, as transmission distances increased, the more transmission line efficient 3-phase system became more prominent. Both 2-φ and 3-φ components coexisted for a number of years. The Scott-T transformer connection allowed 2-φ and 3-φ components like motors and alternators to beinterconnected. Yamamoto and Yamaguchi:
In 1896, General Electric built a 35.5 km (22 mi) three-phase transmission line operated at 11 kV to transmit power to Buffalo, New York, from the Niagara Falls Project. The two-phase generated power was changed to three-phase by the use of Scott-T transformations. [MYA]
Scott-T transformer converts 2-φ to 3-φ, or vice versa.
The Scott-T transformerset, Figure above, consists of a center tapped transformer T1 and an 86.6% tapped transformer T2 on the 3-φ side of the circuit. The primaries of both transformers are connected to the 2-φ voltages. One end of the T2 86.6% secondary winding is a 3-φ output, the other end is connected to the T1 secondary center tap. Both ends of the T1 secondary are the other two 3-φ connections.
Application of 2-φNiagara generator power produced a 3-φ output for the more efficient 3-φ transmission line. More common these days is the application of 3-φ power to produce a 2-φ output for driving an old 2-φ motor.
In Figure below, we use vectors in both polar and complex notation to prove that the Scott-T converts a pair of 2-φ voltages to 3-φ. First, one of the 3-φ voltages is identical to a 2-φ voltagedue to the 1:1 transformer T1 ratio, VP12= V2P1. The T1 center tapped secondary produces opposite polarities of 0.5V2P1 on the secondary ends. This ∠0o is vectorially subtracted from T2 secondary voltage due to the KVL equations V31, V23. The T2 secondary voltage is 0.866V2P2 due to the 86.6% tap. Keep in mind that this 2nd phase of the 2-φ is ∠90o. This 0.866V2P2 is added at V31, subtracted at V23in the KVL equations.
Scott-T transformer 2-φ to 3-φ conversion equations.
We show “DC” polarities all over this AC only circuit, to keep track of the Kirchhoff voltage loop polarities. Subtracting ∠0o is equivalent to adding ∠180o. The bottom line is when we add 86.6% of ∠90o to 50% of ∠180o we get ∠120o. Subtracting 86.6% of ∠90o from 50% of ∠180o yields ∠-120o or ∠240o.
Graphicalexplanation of equations in Figure previous.
In Figure above we graphically show the 2-φ vectors at (a). At (b) the vectors are scaled by transformers T1 and T2 to 0.5 and 0.866 respectively. At (c) 1∠120o = -0.5∠0o + 0.866∠90o, and 1∠240o = -0.5∠0o - 0.866∠90o. The three output phases are 1∠120o and 1∠240o from (c), along with input 1∠0o (a).
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
A linearvariable differential transformer (LVDT) has an AC driven primary wound between two secondaries on a cylindrical air core form. (Figure below) A movable ferromagnetic slug converts displacement to a variable voltage by changing the coupling between the driven primary and secondary windings. The LVDT is a displacement or distance measuring transducer. Units are available for measuring displacement overa distance of a fraction of a millimeter to a half a meter. LVDT's are rugged and dirt resistant compared to linear optical encoders.
LVDT: linear variable differential transformer.
The excitation voltage is in the range of 0.5 to 10 VAC at a frequency of 1 to 200 Khz. A ferrite core is suitable at these frequencies. It is extended outside the body by an non-magnetic rod. As the core is movedtoward the top winding, the voltage across this coil increases due to increased coupling, while the voltage on the bottom coil decreases. If the core is moved toward the bottom winding, the voltage on this coil increases as the voltage decreases across the top coil. Theoretically, a centered slug yields equal voltages across both coils. In practice leakage inductance prevents the null from...