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geography on english!*
Estefania Cortes
Maria Luisa Pacheco
2 grade of high school


Area: 780,580 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Ankara (pop. 4.66 million). Other cities--Istanbul (12.916 million), Izmir (3.86 million), Bursa (2.55 million), Adana (2.06 million), Gaziantep (1.65 million).
Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateaubecomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.
Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.

Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish.
Population (July 2010 estimate): 76.8 million.
Annual population growth rate (2010 estimate): 1.312%.
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.Religions: Muslim 99% (majority Sunni), Christian, Bahai, and Jewish.
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek.
Education: Years compulsory--8. Attendance--97.6%. Literacy--87.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--25.78/1,000. Life expectancy--71.96 yrs.
Work force (24.74 million): Agriculture--29.5%; industry--24.7%; services--45.8%.

Type: Republic.
Independence:October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (336 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (101 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (70 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (20 seats), Democratic Left Party (DSP) (6 seats), Democrat Party (DP) (1 seat), Turkey Party (TP) (1seat), seven independents, and eight vacant seats.
Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic Day, October 28-29.

Natural resources: Coal, chromium, mercury, copper, boron, oil, gold.
Agriculture (9.3% of GDP): Major cash crops tobacco, cotton, sugar beets, hazelnuts, wheat, barley, grain, olives, and citrus. Provides about 29.5% of jobs and 2.7% of exports.Industry (25.6% of GDP): Major growth sector, types--automotive, electronics, food processing, textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and petrochemicals. Provides about 24.7% of jobs and 95% of exports.
Trade: Exports (merchandise)--(2005) $73.5 billion; (2006) $85.5 billion; (2007) $107.2 billion; (2008) $132 billion; (2009) $102.1 billion; (2010 as of August) $72.9 billion: textiles and apparel,industrial machinery, iron and steel, electronics, petroleum products, and motor vehicles. Imports (merchandise)--(2005) $116.8 billion; (2006) $139.6 billion; (2007) $170.1 billion; (2008) $201.8 billion; (2009) $140.4 billion; (2010 as of August) $114.9 billion: petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles, electronics, iron, steel, plastics precious metals. Major partners--Germany, U.S., Italy, France,Russia, Japan, China, Iran, U.K.

Modern Turkey encompasses bustling cosmopolitan centers, pastoral farming villages, barren wastelands, peaceful Aegean coastlines, and steep mountain regions. More than 70% of Turkey's population lives in urban areas that juxtapose Western lifestyles with more traditional ways of life.

The Turkish state has been officially secular since 1924.Approximately 99% of the population is Muslim. Most Turkish Muslims follow the Sunni traditions of Islam, although a significant number follow Alevi and Shiite traditions. Questions regarding the role of religion in society and government, the role of linguistic and ethnic identity, and the public's expectation to live in security dominate public discourse. Turkish citizens who assert a Kurdish identity...