What are probiotics

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What Are Probiotics? May 2011
defined as ”live micro-organisms which, when administered inadequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host” generally selected from a small number of genera and species
Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus. Often consumed as part of a dairy product eg yoghurt
Probiotics means ”for life” inLatin
Probiotics have been consumed in fermented milk, products for thousands of years. In the past 20 years probiotics have gained immense popularity in western dairy products
The first scientist to describe the health benefits of probiotics was immunologist Dr. Eli Metchnikoff Received Nobel Prize in 1908
10x more bacterial cells in human body (~1014) than there are human cellsGastrointestinal tract is largest immune organ in human body, Probiotic example, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, Strain specificity, Animal analogy, Horse, Wild Horse, Eurasian Wild Horse, DNA specific Eurasian Wild Horse
Taxonomy, Genus, Species, Subspecies, Strain

Probiotics - who and when?
Consumed forthousands of years in cultured dairy products, e.g. kefir and yogurt 1908 Nobel laureate, professor Elie Metchnikoff suggests health benefits of lactic acid bacteria 1935 First commercialization of probiotics. Lactobacillus casei strain isolated and sold in yogurt drink in Japan, 1965 First time the word probiotic is used. Scientists used it to describe the opposite of antibiotics
1857 Lactic acidbacteria discovered by Pasteur
1980’ies First probiotic yogurts introduced in Europe
1990’ies Increasing consumer awareness of probiotics in Asia and Europe
2000’ies Increasing U.S. awareness of probiotics triggered by Dannon’s launch of Activia in 2006
Bacteria – where?
Microbiota ~100 trillions microbes in/on every person compared to ~10 trillions human cells.
Oral cavity. Stable both betweenand within people. Skin. Highly variable both between and within people. Gut. Stable within people but highly variable between people.
Probiotics – where?
The adult gastrointestinal microbiota
Stomach. Very few bacteria – perhaps Helicobacter pylori. Duodenum / Jejunum
Primarily Streptococci, Lactobacilli, Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria
Ileum. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteriaceae, Bacteroides,Enterococcaceae, Clostridia
Heavy and diverse microbiota - primarily
Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, Streptococci,
Clostridia and Enterobacteriaceae

Why use probiotics?
Gastrointestinal health, Functional bowel disorders, Acute diarrhea, Microbiota, Immune health, Infections, Antibiotic use, Immune stimulation, Atopic diseases
How do probiotics work?

BB-12® – benefits toGastrointestinal Health
BB-12® for dairy and beyond
The probiotic strain BB-12®, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, provides advantages to the global food producers and consumers.
BB-12® is:
• one of the best documented probiotic strains with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health.
• expressing good stability and viability, and has no adverse impact on taste, appearance or palatabilityof the end product.
• specially selected by Chr. Hansen and has been used in fermented milk and other dairy products worldwide for more than twenty years.
Good gastrointestinal health with BB-12®
Gastrointestinal health is a broad term covering conditions and symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, bloating and microflora imbalance.
BB-12® and Bowel Function
Studies with BB-12® haveshown that a daily intake of
BB-12® in a dosage of at least 1 billion CFU can improve bowel movements significantly. In a study in elderly, supplementation with BB-12 significantly increased the number of elderly having normal bowel movements compared to a control group (Pitkälä et al. 2007).
Effect of BB-12® on bowel function has also been documented in healthy young adults with tendency to...
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