The first historical recorded encounter of a people displaying the cultural traits associated with the Celts comes from northern Italy around 400 BC, when a previously unknown group of barbarians came down from the Alps and displaced the Etruscans from the fertile Po valley, a displacement that helped to push the Etruscans from history's limelight. The next encounter with theCelts came with the still young Roman Empire, directly to the south of the Po. The Romans in fact had sent three envoys to the besieged Etruscans to study this new force. We know from Livy's The Early History of Rome that this first encounter with Rome was quite civilized:
2--Gaius Julius Caesar, who would become the first Emperor of Rome, was born on 13 July, 100 B.C.E. He was born at achaotic time in Roman history, brought about largely by the rapid expansion of the Roman Empire. The first 20 years of Caesar's life were typified by rivalries between the Senate and the Assembly. The electoral system in Rome was also corrupt.
Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC in Gaul (now France) into the Roman imperial family. Tiberius, the second emperor of Rome, was his uncle. Claudiussuffered from physical disabilities, including a limp and a speech impediment and was therefore treated with disdain by his family, and not considered as a future emperor. When Tiberius's successor Caligula was assassinated in January 41 AD, the Praetorian Guard found Claudius in the palace and acclaimed him as emperor. The senate held out against Claudius for two days, but then accepted him.
3--TheGermanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between the years 600 and 300 BC. Later they went to the south. Unlike the Northern and Western tribes, they did not successfully preserve their ethnicity and were primarily assimilated into Western Germanic tribes and Romans.
According tosome theories, the east Germanic tribes, related to the North Germanic tribes, had migrated from Scandinavia into the region east of the Elbe River (Vandals, Burgundians, Goths, Rugians and others
The Vikings were venturesome seafarers. From Denmark, Norway and Sweden they spread through Europe and the North Atlantic in the period of vigorous Scandinavian expansion (AD800-1050) known as the Viking Age.
Although they are often thought of primarily as raiders , the Vikings were also traders , explorers and settlers. Behind them they left a legacy not only of archaeological remains, but also of family names, place names and fieldnames. Their "remains" can be found in local dialects and customs, in folk tales and oral traditions, and of course in the genetic make upof the local people themselves.
The Viking Ship
The development of the Viking ship , made this expansion possible. With its flexible hull and its keel and sail, the Viking ship was far superior to ships and boats used by other peoples at the time.
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the ninth and fifteenth centuries, which, broadlydefined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Medieval Period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof...