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  • Publicado : 23 de mayo de 2011
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PREPARATION FOR FRESH FRUIT MARKET

I. DEGREENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 A. Degreening Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 B. Ethephon, Ethylene, and Other Compounds Enhancing Rind Color . . . . . . . . . 233 C. Degreening Rooms . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 D. Changes in Physico-chemical Attributes of Degreened Fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 E. Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 F.Fruit Color and Mass Loss in Degreened Fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 G. Decay and Disorders in Degreened Fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 H. Color improvement With Other Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 II. PACKINGHOUSE OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 245 A. Mechanized Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 B. Commodity-specific Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 C. Care During Handling of Fruit on Packing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 D. Manual versus Mechanical Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 E. Packinghouse Environment, Worker Conditions, and Safety Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 F. Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 G. Wastewater Disposal . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 H. Economics and Energy Needs of Packinghouse Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 I. Conventional Operations in Developing Countries and Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 264 J. Some Tips for Export of Citrus Fruits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 III. POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 A. Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 B. Disinfection and Cleaning . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 C. Surface Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 D. Plant-Growth Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 E. Other Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation Copyright © 2008 by Elsevier Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

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CITRUS FRUIT: BIOLOGY, TECHNOLOGY AND EVALUATION

Postharvest treatments are applied tocitrus fruits before storage in order to delay senescence, minimize spoilage, and improve appearance and marketability. Degreening is done mainly to improve color. Applications of surface coatings, fungicides, and other chemicals are common before fruits are marketed or stored under ambient or refrigerated conditions. These treatments are also effective in reducing chilling injury in refrigerated...
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