EL PROCESO DE APRENDIZAJE LINGUISTICO: SEMEJANZAS Y DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LA ADQUISICION DE LA PRIMERA LENGUA Y DE LA LENGUA EXTRANJERA
CONTRIBUTIONS OF LINGUISTICS TO THE TEACHING OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGES.
THE PROCESS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FIRST AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.
Theaim of this topic is to study the processes of learning and acquiring a language in both first and foreign language and how linguistics has contributed to EFL teaching.. For this purpose, I am going to divide the topic in three different parts. The first part of the topic will explain with the importance of linguistics in language learning. The second part of the topic will focus on the study ofmother tongue language acquisition and its progressive stages, and then, I’ll look at some of the theories related to the foreign language acquisition. The third part of the topic will analyse the differences and similarities between first and foreign language acquisition. Finally I will compile the main conclusions and bibliography.
Human language is a complex and versatile phenomenon which canonly be understood if it is observed under multiples angles.
Language acquisition research describes and explains how first and second languages are acquired. Linguistics plays a key role in this attempt, but there are other important sciences like psychology, anthropology, sociolinguistics or psycholinguistics which also have implications for language learning and teaching.
Next I am goingto develop the first part of this topic, the contributions of linguistics to the teaching of foreign languages.
Linguistics is a discipline which is dedicated to the role of language in human affairs. It is the scientific study of structure of natural language and the knowledge that speakers have of it. According to Applied Linguistics, it mediates between the theory of language and the practiceof language both with its acquisition and its use.
Linguistic can be studied under two perspectives: on the one hand we have Descriptive (synchronic) linguistics which analyzes and describes how language is spoken in a language community whereas diachronic linguistics refers to the study of language change along time.
Also, we can see different areas within linguistic studies, all of which haveinfluence on foreign language learning and teaching, so, we find two complementary types of linguistic:
Internal linguistic, study the language itself, without external factors, here it is included the disciplines of phonology, phonetics, syntax, morphology, semantics or pragmatics.
External linguistic, studies language in relation to the extra-linguistics factors, here we find:Psycholinguistics, which is mainly concerned with the psychological and neurological factors that allow humans acquire, use and understand language. Psycholinguistics has shown that language and thought condition each other, thus, the thinking and expressive processes influence each other.
However, if we want to link these linguistic concepts with the language teaching, we must take into account that theobjectives are essential components when planning any kind of learning. In relation to foreign language learning, Language pedagogy over the centuries has pursued three main objectives: social (language as communication); artistic-literary (language as a means for artistic creation and appreciation); and philosophical (language analysis).", which reflect three visions of language: the language as aninstrument (social communication), the language as material (of artistic expression) and the language as an object (study). So, historically we find the influence of the teaching methods of Latin and Greek in language learning since the seventeenth century until early in the 20th, responding basically to objectives of the artistic-literary type; subsequently, from the 1920S, the structuralism...