All parents are happy seeing the growth of their children. From the first step, the first word or their first day of school, all the details are really important. Lamentably in some cases, the parents begin to see stranger’s behaviors after the first year of life of their child; the child is not being developed appropriately. There is something strange in his conduct: theboy isolates itself, lives in his own world which the father does not manage to enter, that is to say are incapable to interact socially since the boy does not speak, shouts without some reason, all the day is swinging and it is worrisome in a significant way. After an exhaustive diagnosis the answer is: Autism. When it is already known the diagnosis comes to the mind of the parents: What is autismand why my child has autism?
Autism is not considered a disease, is a syndrome, a set of symptoms that characterize a degenerative upheaval of the bio-psico-social development. It is a severe and chronic incapacity of the development, that was discovered for the first time in 1943 by a psychiatrist from Austrian called Leo Kanner, and it is known that it is more common in men than in women ofall type of race, ethnic group and culture.
The investigations about the origin and the causes of the generalized upheavals of the development like autism are relatively recent. Although in the last years many efforts in investigations have been used on the matter, and it has advanced enormente in the knowledge of these upheavals, still continues being, nowadays, a true mystery the cause ofautism. An enormous variety among the different children affected with this upheaval exists, and the investigations are pointing at that it is not possible to be spoken of a unique cause of autism, but would be a multi-cause upheaval where the surroundings are also definitive in the evolution of the upheaval. The theory that counts on a greater acceptance in the scientific community is the one thatlocates the disease in one or several genes responsible for the development of the disease, the malformation or dysfunction in certain cerebral areas and environmental factors.
Genetic factors. The scientific evidence suggests, in the majority of the cases, autism is a heritable disorder. In fact, it is one of the neurological disorders with greater genetic influence than exist. It is as heritable asthe personality or the intellectual coefficient. Studies show to differences in the form and the cerebral structure of the people with autism.
Malformation or dysfunction of the brain. The studies of autistics people have found differences in some regions of the brain, including the cerebellum, the amygdale, the hippocampus, septum and the mammillary bodies. The neurons in these regions seem tobe smaller of the normal thing and have underdeveloped nervous fibers, which can interfere with the nervous signals. Also it has found that the brain of autistic is greater and heavy than the brain average. These differences suggest autism result from an atypical development of the brain during the fetal development. Nevertheless, it is possible to notice that many of these studies have not beenduplicated and they do not explain a majority of the cases. Studies suggest autistics people have differences in the serotonin production and other molecules in the brain. Although these findings cause intrigue, these are preliminary and require more studies.
Environmental factors. If a child owns a genetic tendency to autism, certain environmental factors can “trigger it”. Several environmentalfactors have been purposed that would affect the development of a person genetically predisposed to autism.
Poisoning by heavy metals: the poisoning by mercury, presents/displays symptoms similar to those of autism. Nevertheless, the existing scientific evidence on the matter is not conclusive.
Obstetrical factors: There are a good number of studies that show to an important correlation...