Child abuse

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Child abuse

Definition
Can be defined as "any physical or psychological damage produced in a non-accidental caused by their parents or caregivers that occurs as a result of physical actions, sexual or emotional act or omission that threaten the normal development both physical, psychological and emotional "(Martinez and De Paul, 1993).

Define and conceptualize the word abuse is difficult,that have clear, and this is partly because we are dealing with behaviors that fall within the complex field of personal relationships and those that are supposed to be of affection, respect and welfare (Infante , 1997). Because, well, we're talking about different kinds of abuse, each of which is different from others and, in turn, has different characteristics. Therefore, the abuse can beapproached from different perspectives:
There are four major categories of child abuse:
* neglect,
* physical abuse,
* psychological/emotional abuse
* and child sexual abuse
Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge.
According to theJournal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm".

Types
Child abuse can take several forms, the four main types are:
* Neglect.
* Physical,
* Sexual* Psychological,

I. Neglect
Neglect is where the responsible adult fails to provide adequately for various needs, including physical (failure to provide adequate food, clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide nurturing or affection), educational (failure to enroll a child in school), or medical (failure to medicate the child or take him or her to the doctor).
SIGNS OFNEGLECT
Consider the possibility of neglect when the child:
* Missing school frequently.

* Calls or steals money or other objects to classmates.

* Have serious dental problems, or visual and not treated accordingly.
* It is common for classes concur dirty or inappropriate clothing for the season, without the status of their parents is that of extreme poverty

* The childsays that often left alone at home or the care of another child.
Consider the possibility of neglect when their parents or elders in charge:
* When the parents are indifferent to what the teachers say the child a.
*
His behavior in relation to the child or the institution is irrational.
*
The parents are suffering from alcoholism or other dependency.

II. Physical abusePhysical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult.
It can involve striking, burning, bruising, choking or shaking a child. Shaking a child can cause a condition called shaken baby syndrome, which can lead to intracranial pressure, swelling of the brain, diffuse axonal injury, and oxygen deprivation; which leads to patterns such as failure to thrive, vomiting, lethargy,seizures, bulging or tense fontanels, altered breathing, and dilated pupils. The transmission of toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions.
Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of serious injury or death to be illegal.Beyond this, there is considerable variation. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse.
Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes...
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