Control of monosporascus cannonballus rev

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iewReview on a particular Ascomycete that affects cucurbits

Monosporascus cannonballus
By Marcel Barbier

University of Florida, Plant Medicine Program Monosporascus cannonballus, Pathogen profile INTRODUCTION
Monosporascus cannonballus is considered the main responsible agent of causing the disease known as sudden wilt, sudden death, root rot and/or vine decline which is a disease knownin arid and semi-arid regions worldwide (4, 7, 16). This fungus has been reported and investigated worldwide where melon and other cucurbits are commercially grown in large scale Arizona, California, and Texas in the United States, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Taiwan, Tunisia, Spain, Saudi Arabia, and Israel (3, 11, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, and 30). Pivonia, et al., in 2002 reported that fields in theArava region of southern Israel, melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) crops can be totally destroyed by the disease in later summer, while disease incidence and severity in crops grown in the same field during the following winter-spring season mostly are lower (21). Kim et al. in 1995 reported a similar phenomenon observed in Arizona (12). Barbier in 2008 reported inGuatemala differences between soil temperature and relative humidity in the two growing seasons (1). Wolff in 1996 also suggested that disease symptoms in melons are affected by temperature stress in Texas. these variations in incidence and severity. Soil disinfestation by fumigation with methyl bromide has been a common and very effective treatment for soil disinfection including soil pathogens. However,the United Nations, through the Montreal Protocol, has signatures from over 120 countries banning methyl bromide by the year 2015. Because methyl bromide depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the amount of methyl bromide produced and imported in the United States was reduced incrementally through the Clean Air Act, and was definitely banned and phased out in January 1, 2005. Alternatives toreplace methyl bromide on controlling Monosporascus cannonballus have not been as effective as methyl bromide was. In 1996 Martyn et al (16), reported that Metam-sodium, 1,3-dicloropropene, and a mixture of ethylene dibromide and chloropicrin, were not effective on controlling M. cannonballus when the products were applied alone without mixing. Since 1996, Pivonia, et al., suggested that soiltemperature differences between the two growing seasons could be an explanation for

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University of Florida, Plant Medicine Program Monosporascus cannonballus, Pathogen profile
different products (chemical, biological and botanical) and products mixtures application through the irrigation system, grafting, and solarization technique, has been evaluated, without obtaining consistingresults on controlling Monosporascus spp. in melon, watermelon and other cucurbit species. The risk that Monosporascus species continue spreading to other cucurbits cropping areas is high.

Distribution:
Monosporascus cannonballus has been reported only members of Cucurbitaceae in arid, hot areas. The most important hosts in the field are melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)(18). According with the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), by 2010 Monosporascus cannonballus has been reported in Europe (Italy, Norway, and Spain); Asia (India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan); Africa (Libya and Tunisia); and America (Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, United States, and Brazil). EPPO has Monosporascus cannonballus in the Alertlist formerly.

Map of areas in the world reporting Monosporascus spp. (2010)

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University of Florida, Plant Medicine Program Monosporascus cannonballus, Pathogen profile Monosporascus genus
During the sixty-second annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, celebrated at Hot Springs, Arkansas, from the 4 th to the 8th of October, 1970 Troutman and Matejka (28)...
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