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Verb TO BE : (Ser o Estar)

Present

Generalidades:

El verbo To Be tiene dos significados: Ser y Estar. En el tiempo presente se conjuga de la siguiente forma

PP* Aff* Neg* Int*

I am… am not… Am I…?

You are… are not… Are you…?

He is… is not… Is he…?

She is… is not… Is she…?

It is… is not… Is it…?

We are… are not… Arewe…?

You are… are not… Are you…?

They are… are not… Are they…?

*PP: Pronombre Personal (Personal Pronoun) / Aff: Afirmativo / Neg: Negativo / Int: Interrogativo / Trd: Traducción / SA: Short Answer (respuestas cortas)

Fíjate bien en los siguientes ejemplos, en ellos encontrarás ambos significados del verbo To Be.

Aff: I am happy She is in Talca They are cousinsTrd: Yo soy/ estoy feliz Ella está en Talca Ellos son primos
Neg: I am not happy She is not in Talca They are not cousins
Int: Am I happy? Is she in Talca? Are they cousins?
SA: Yes, I am Yes, she is Yes, they are
SA: No, I am not No, she is not No, they are not

Aff: You are angry It is a cat We are hungry
Trd: Tú estás enojado Es un gato Nosotrostenemos hambre
Neg: You are not angry It is not a cat We are not hungry
Int: Are you angry? Is it a cat? Are we hungry?
SA: Yes, you are Yes, it is Yes, we are
SA: No, you are not No, it is not No, we are not

Hay que tener en cuenta que los pronombres personales se pueden reemplazar por nombres propios, personas o animales, lugares o cosas en el caso de “it”
Ejemplo:
-Susan is a student. (Susan = she) / She is a student.
- Peter and I are friends (Peter and I = we) / We are friends.
- Susan and Peter are cousins (Susan and Peter = they) / They are cousins.
- The cat is cute (The cat = it) / It is cute.
- New York is a big city (New York = it) / It is a big city.

Abreviaciones:

I am = I’m

He / she / it is = He’s – she’s - it’s

You / we / theyare = You’re – we’re – they’re
Is not = isn’t

Are not = aren’t

Aff: I’m happy She’s in Talca They’re cousins
Neg: I’m not happy She isn’t in Talca They aren’t cousins
Int: Am I happy? Is she in Talca? Are they cousins?
SA: Yes, I’m Yes, she is Yes, they are
SA: No, I’m not No, she isn’t No, they aren’t

Aff: You’re angry It’s a cat We’re hungry
Neg: Youaren’t angry It isn’ta cat We aren’t hungry
Int: Are you angry? Is it a cat? Are we hungry?
SA: Yes, you are Yes, it is Yes, we are
SA: No, you aren’t No, it isn’t No, we aren’t

Para poder formar una pregunta en negativo puedes hacerlo de dos formas:

1.- Am / Is / Are + Sujeto + not + complemento?
Are you not Mr. Smith?

2.- Isn’t / Aren’t + Sujeto + complemento?Aren’t you Mr. Smith?

**Cuando nos preguntemos a uno mismo, es decir usando el pronombre “I”, en el inglés hablado se usa mucho decir Aren’t I….

Debes saber que el verbo “to be” tiene un tercer significado que es “Tener”, pero sólo referente a la edad, tener hambre y sed.
▪ I’m 18 years old.
▪ She is hungry.
▪ We are thirsty.

Ejercicios:

1.- Vuelve a escribir lassiguientes oraciones en negativo e interrogativo y da las respuestas cortas.

a) I am a secretary
b) You are a woman
c) He is a man
d) She is a girl
e) It is a pencil
f) You are writers
g) We are good friends
h) They are children
i) I’m from Brazil.
j) My sister is seventeen.
k) You’re in these photos.
l) We’re from China.
m) Your purse is in theliving room

2.- Completa los siguientes diálogos con el verbo To Be según corresponda.

a)
Alex: Hello, I ________ Alex Jones.
Tina: Hello, I _________ Tina Molina
Alex: ______ you from South America, Tina?
Tina: Yes, I ____. I______ from Uruguay. Where _____ you and your sister from, Alex?
Alex: We_____ from England.
Tina: _____ you from London?
Alex: No, we ______ from Liverpool....
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