Economia ambiental

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Introduction Research has shown that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in both the opportunity for crime and fear of crime. Through their involvement in design and construction, architects, planners and builders can influence the creation of safer neighbourhoods and communities. This pamphlet provides a generaloverview of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) for professionals who work in urban design development and related areas. It is not meant to be an exhaustive analysis or a checklist.

What is CPTED?
CPTED is an approach to planning and development that reduces opportunities for crime. Communities, neighbourhoods, individual homes, and other buildings, streets, and parks can allbe made safer through the application of design principles that make it more difficult to carry out inappropriate activities. CPTED can reduce crime and fear through:

Territoriality - fostering residents’ interaction, vigilance, and control over their neighbourhood Surveillance - maximizing the ability to spot suspicious people and activities Activity support - encouraging the intended use ofpublic space by residents Hierarchy of space - identifying ownership by delineating private space from public space through real or symbolic boundaries Access control/target hardening - using physical barriers, security devices and tamper-resistant materials to restrict entrance Environment - a design or location decision that takes into account the surrounding environment and minimizes the use ofspace by conflicting groups

Image/Maintenance - ensuring that a building or area is clean, wellmaintained, and graffiti-free

What is the role of CPTED? CPTED is part of a comprehensive approach to crime prevention. By emphasizing modifications to the physical environment, it complements community-based policing, Block Watch, and social programs that address some of the root causes ofcriminal behaviour.

What are the main steps in CPTED projects? 1. engage the support of residents and other key partners 2. identify crime and disorder problems in and around the site 3. analyse current or proposed design based on existing crime problems and
potential criminal opportunities

4. develop preventive or corrective design options 5. carry out preferred option 6. monitor and evaluatehow the implemented option affects crime, resident
surveillance, interaction, and territoriality

7. disseminate and promote evaluation results

When can CPTED be applied? CPTED can be applied to identify and remove potential problems in proposed developments. It can also be used to correct existing design problems that may invite crime.

What are some CPTED tactics?

Neighbourhoods:
    

minimize the number of entry and exit points on a block design roadways to discourage through-traffic maximize residents’ ability to view public spaces encourage residents’ use of public spaces provide appropriate lighting for streets, paths, alleys, and parks encourage residents to watch over each other

Houses:


clearly delineate private property (e.g., yard, driveway,walkway) from public space (e.g., street, sidewalk) through shrubbery, alternate paving stone colour, and changes in grade provide unobstructed views of surrounding area ensure entrances are visible and overlooked by window avoid landscaping that may conceal offenders install bright security lights use solid-core exterior doors use solid door frames with proper strike plates

     

Apartmentbuildings:
     

provide common spaces to encourage tenant interaction minimize the number of units sharing a common entrance equip entrances with an intercom system ensure hallways are well-lit install deadbolt locks and peep holes on unit doors provide children’s areas that can be easily observed



provide windows that allow for surveillance in laundry rooms

Parking lots and...
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