Ecosistemas del milenio

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Chapter 8

Food
Coordinating Lead Authors: Stanley Wood, Simeon Ehui Lead Authors: Jacqueline Alder, Sam Benin, Kenneth G. Cassman, H. David Cooper, Timothy Johns, Joanne Gaskell, Richard Grainger, Sandra Kadungure, Joachim Otte, Agnes Rola, Reg Watson, Ulf Wijkstrom, C. Devendra Contributing Authors: Nancy Kanbar, Zahia Khan, Will Masters, Sarah Porter, Stefania Vannuccini, Ulrike Wood-SichraReview Editors: Arsenio M. Balisacan, Peter Gardiner

Main Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 8.1 8.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Magnitude, Distribution, and Structure of Food Provision . . . . . . . . . 213
8.2.1 8.2.2 Structure and Distribution ofFood Provision Distribution of and Trends in Domesticated and Wild Food Production

8.3 8.4

Food Provision and Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Drivers of Change in Food Provision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.4.1 8.4.2 Indirect Drivers Direct Drivers

8.5

Food Provision and Human Well-being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 229
8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.5.5 8.5.6 Health and Nutrition Food Safety Household Economic Impacts Macroeconomic Growth Cultural Aspects Distributional Dimensions

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

209

210 BOXES
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends
8.9 8.108.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 Association between National Average Dietary Energy Supply and GDP, Per Capita Key Linkages in the Nutrition, Health, and Economic Wellbeing Nexus Dietary Energy Supply, 1961–2001 Distribution of Per Capita Dietary Energy Supply by Decade Status and Trends of Hunger, 1990–2001 Double Burden of Undernutrition and Overnutrition among Women Aged 20–49 for Selected DevelopingCountries

Cropland Dynamics: The Case of Oil Crops The Growing Use of Crops as Feed Trophic Level Diet and Nutrition Drivers: ‘‘The Diet Transition’’ Biofortification

FIGURES
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 Trends in Key Indicators of Food Provision, 1961–2002 Spatial Distribution of Value of Food Production for Crops, Livestock, and Fisheries, 2000* Spatial Distribution of Food Production inParts of Asia for Crops, Livestock, and Fisheries, 2000* Aggregate Structure of Per Capita (1961–2003) and Total Food Crop Output by Group Aggregate Structure of Per Capita (1961–2003) and Total Livestock Output by Group Developing-Country Net Exports of Fish and Selected Agricultural Commodities, 1982, 1992, and 2002 Decline in the Trophic Level of Fishery Catch, 1970–95 Trends in Selected Driversof Food Provision Worldwide, 1961–2001

TABLES
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 The Global Structure of Food Provision by Food Category and MA Ecosystem Global and Regional Growth Rates in Crop Output Global and Regional Growth in Livestock Output World Fishery Production and Utilization, 1996–2001 Indirect Drivers of Food Provision Direct Drivers of Food Provision Global AgriculturalResearch Spending, 1976–95 Public–Private Breakdown of Research Expenditures, Circa 1995 Regional and Global Burden of Nutrition-related Disease Risk Factors

*This appears in Appendix A at the end of this volume.

Food

211

Main Messages
Despite the fact that food production per capita has been increasing globally, major distributional inequalities exist. Global food production has increasedby 168% over the past 42 years. The production of cereals has increased by about 130%, but that is now growing more slowly. Nevertheless, an estimated 852 million people were undernourished in 2000–02, up 37 million from the period 1997–99. Of this total, nearly 96% live in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the largest share of undernourished people, is also the region...
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