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American English
American English (variously abbreviated AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US,[1] also known as United States English, or U.S. English) is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in the United States. Approximately two-thirds of native speakers of English live in the United States. English is the most common language in theUnited States. Though the U.S. federal government has no official language, English is considered the de facto language of the United States because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 30 of the 50 state governments. The use of English in the United States was inherited from British colonization. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America inthe 17th century. During that time, there were also speakers in North America of Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Scots, Welsh, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Finnish,Russian (in Alaska), and numerous Native American languages.[citation needed]

Phonology : Compared to English asspoken in England, North American English[4] is more homogeneous. Some distinctive accents can be found on the East Coast (for example, in Eastern New England and New York City), partly because these areas were in contact with England and imitated prestigious varieties of British English at a time when those varieties were undergoing changes.[5][Need quotation to verify] In addition, many speechcommunities on the East Coast have existed in their present locations longer than others. The interior of the United States, however, was settled by people from all regions of the existing United States and therefore developed a far more generic linguistic pattern. Most North American speech is rhotic, as English was in most places in the 17th century. Rhoticity was further supportedby Hiberno-English, West Country English and Scottish English as well as the fact most regions of England at this time also had rhotic accents.[citation needed] In most varieties of North American English, the sound corresponding to the letter r is a retroflex [ɻ] or alveolar approximant [ɹ] rather than a trill or a tap. The loss of syllable-final r in North America is confined mostly to the accents of eastern NewEngland, New York City and surrounding areas and the coastal portions of the South, and African American Vernacular English. In ruraltidewater Virginia and eastern New England, 'r' is non-rhotic in accented (such as "bird", "work", "first", "birthday") as well as unaccented syllables, although this is declining among the younger generation of speakers.[citation needed] Dropping ofsyllable-final r sometimes happens in natively rhotic dialects if r is located in unaccented syllables or words and the next syllable or word begins in a consonant. In England, the lost r was often changed into [ə] (schwa), giving rise to a new class of falling diphthongs.[citation needed]Furthermore, the ersound of fur or butter, is realized in AmE as a monophthongal r-colored vowel (stressed [ɝ] orunstressed [ɚ] as represented in theIPA).[citation needed] This does not happen in the non-rhotic varieties of North American speech.
Regional differences While written AmE is standardized across the country, there are several recognizable variations in the spoken language, both in pronunciation and in vernacular vocabulary. General American is the name given toany American accent that is relatively free of noticeable regional influences. After the Civil War, the settlement of the western territories by migrants from the Eastern U.S. led to dialect mixing and leveling, so that regional dialects are most strongly differentiated along the Eastern seaboard. The Connecticut River and Long Island Sound is usually regarded as the southern/western...
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