English as a global language

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English as a global language
Second edition

David Crystal, world authority on the English language, presents a lively and factual account of the rise of English as a global language and explores the whys and wherefores of the history, current status and future potential of English as the international language of communication. English has been lauded as the most ‘successful’ language ever,with 1,500 million speakers worldwide; but Crystal avoids taking sides and tells the story in a measured but engaging way, backed by facts and figures. This new edition of his classic book contains extra sections (on subjects including the linguistic features of New Englishes, the future of English as a world language, and the possibility of an English ‘family’ of languages), footnotes and a fullbibliography. There are updates throughout. This is a book for anyone of any nationality concerned with English: teachers, students, language professionals, politicians, general readers and anyone with a love of the language.
D AVI D C R YS TA L is one of the world’s foremost authorities on language. He is author of the hugely successful Cambridge encyclopedia of language (1987; second edition1997), Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (1995), Language death (2000), Language and the Internet (2001) and Shakespeare’s words (2002, with Ben Crystal). An internationally renowned writer, journal editor, lecturer and broadcaster, he received an OBE in 1995 for his services to the study and teaching of the English language. His edited books include several editions of The Cambridgeencyclopedia (1990–2000) and related publications, Words on words (2000, with Hilary Crystal) and The new Penguin encyclopedia (2002).

English as a global language
Second edition


   Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge  , United Kingdom Published inthe United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521823470 © David Crystal 1997, 2003 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge UniversityPress. First published in print format 2003 - - - - - - ---- eBook (NetLibrary) --- eBook (NetLibrary) ---- hardback --- hardback ---- paperback --- paperback

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List of tables Preface to the second edition Preface to the first edition 1 Why a global language? What is a global language? What makes a global language? Why do we need a global language? What are the dangers of a global language? Could anything stop aglobal language? A critical era Why English? The historical context Origins America Canada The Caribbean Australia and New Zealand South Africa South Asia Former colonial Africa South-east Asia and the South Pacific A world view

page vii ix xii 1 3 7 11 14 25 27 29 30 31 36 39 40 43 46 49 54 59





Why English? The cultural foundation Political developments Access toknowledge Taken for granted Why English? The cultural legacy International relations The media The press Advertising Broadcasting Cinema Popular music International travel International safety Education Communications The right place at the right time The future of global English The rejection of English Contrasting attitudes: the US situation New Englishes The linguistic character of new Englishes...