AP Government 1/31/12
Chapter 3: American Federalism
* In 1787, members of what would become the Federalism Party defended the creation of a strong national government, whereas the Antifederalists warned that a strong national government would overshadow the states.
* People can be in shaping the future, not only at the national level, but within their states as well.* Federalism is a form of government in which a constitution distributes authority and powers between a central government and a smaller regional governments-usually called states, provinces, or republics-giving to both the national and the regional governments substantial responsibilities and powers, including the power to collect taxes and to pass and enforce laws regulating the conduct ofindividuals.
* Constitution divides governmental powers between the national government and the smaller regional governments, giving clearly defined functions to each. Neither the central nor the regional government receives its powers from the other.
* Dual federalism views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers-primarily foreign policy and national defense-to the nationalgovernment, leaving the rest to sovereign states.
* Cooperative federalism stresses federalism as system of intergovernmental relationships in delivering governmental goods and services to the people and calls for cooperation among various levels of government.
* Marble cake federalism, conceives of federalism as a mixed set of responsibilities in which all levels of government are engages in avariety of issues and programs, rather than a dual federalism.
* Competitive federalism, national government, the 50 states, and the thousands of local governments as competing with each other over ways to put together packages or services and taxes.
* Permissive federalism implies that although federalism provides “a sharing of power and authority between the national and stategovernment, the states; share rest upon the permission and permissiveness of the national government.”
* New federalism, presumes that the power of the deferral government is limited in favor of thee broad powers reserved to the states.
* Federal system of the US consists of only the national government and the 50 states.
* Unitary systems are constitutional arrangements that concentrate powerin central government. The central government, if it chooses, may delegate authority to constituent units, but what it delegates, it may take away.
* Confederations are sovereign nations that through a constitutional compact create a central government but carefully limit its authority and do not give it the power to regulate the conduct of individuals directly.
* Confederation had provedunsuccessful. A unitary system was out of the question because most people were too deeply attached to their state governments to permit subordination to central rule.
* Federalism checks and growth of tyranny. When on political party loses control of the national government, it is still likely to hold office in a number of states and can continue to challenge the party in power at thenational level.
* Federalism allows unity without uniformity. Issues are debates in state legislatures.
* Federalism encourages experimentation, “laboratories of democracy.” If they adopt programs that fall, the negative effects are limited; if programs succeed, they can be adopted by other states and by the national government.
* Federalism provides training for national officials.
*Express powers are powers that the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government.
* Inherent powers are powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
* The national government has the same authority to...