Federal government of Mexico
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The federal government of Mexico isthe national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by the Constitution of the United Mexican States to share sovereignty over the United Mexican States with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive,legislative, and judicial. Through the system of separation of powers each of these branches has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority is regulated by the other branches. The seat of the federal government is in the Distrito Federal, or simply, "D.F."
Mexico's government takes place in a framework ofa federal presidential representative democraticrepublic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexicois both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party electoral system. The federal government functions per the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended.
The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, whichis headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet that together are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary and the collegiate,unitary and district tribunals.
The Powers of the Union
The federal government, known as the Supreme Power of the Federation, is constituted by the Powers of the Union: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Mexico City, as the capital of the federation is the Federal District, the seat of the powers of the Union. All branches ofgovernment are independent; no two separate branches must be vested upon a single person or institution, and the legislative power must not be vested upon single individual.
Main article: Congress of Mexico
San Lázaro Palace, the Chamber of Deputies, Congress of the Union
The legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral congress comprisingthe Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) and the Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados). The powers of the Congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, and ratify diplomatic appointments. The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approvesinternational agreements, and confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies addresses all matters pertaining to the government's budget and public expenditures.
The five circumscriptions for the election of plurinominal deputies
The Chamber of Deputies is formed by 500 representatives of the nation. All deputies are elected in free universal elections every three years,in parallel voting: 300 deputies are elected in single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post plurality (called uninominal deputies), and the remaining 200 are elected by the principle of proportional representation (called plurinominal deputies) with open-party lists for which the country is divided into five constituencies or plurinominal circumscriptions. Deputies cannot be reelected...