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The Haynes

Welding Manual
by Jay Storer and John H Haynes
Member of the Guild of Motoring Writers

The Haynes Manual for selecting and using welding equipment
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Haynes Publishing Group Sparkford Nr Yeovil Somerset BA22 7JJ England Haynes North America, Inc 861 Lawrence Drive Newbury Park California 91320 USA

Haynes Welding Manual

Acknowledgements We aregrateful for the help and cooperation of welding equipment manufacturers such as Airco, Daytona MIG, HTP America, Lincoln Electric, Miller Electric and the ESAB Group, for their assistance with technical information and illustrations. Thanks to FitzMaurice-Smith Racing in Ventura for assistance with cover photography. We also wish to thank the Eastwood Company, Maguire's Welding and Valley VintageRods for assistance.
© Haynes North America, Inc. 1994
With permission from J.H. Haynes & Co. Ltd.

A book in the Haynes Automotive Repair Manual Series Printed in the U.S.A.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, withoutpermission in writing from the copyright holder.

ISBN 1 56392110 3 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-74485
While every attempt is made to ensure that the information in this manual is correct, no liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given. 94-176

Contents
Chapter 1Introduction
1-2 1-3 1-6 Definition of welding Development of modern welding Welding today

Chapter 2

Types of welding
2-3 2-3 2-6 2-9 2-11 2-14 2-17 2-18 2-21

How it works Metal alloys Oxy-acetylene gas welding Arc welding MIG (wire-fed) welding TIG (heli-arc) welding Duty-cycles Plasma-arc welding and cutting Practice and training

Chapter 3

Oxy-acetylene gas welding/cutting
3-1 3-3 3-73-9 3-9 3-11 3-16 3-18 3-24

The basic gas process The equipment Getting started Flame adjustment Gas welding Welding with filler rod Brazing Oxy-acetylene cutting Heating with oxy-acetylene

Chapter 4

Arc welding
4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-11 4-13

Comparing duty-cycles AC, DC or both? Rewiring for an arc welder The arc process Safety considerations Beginning arc welding Types of jointsChoosing electrodes

Haynes Welding Manual
Chapter 5 MIG welding
5-5 5-12 5-14 5-16

Shopping for a MIG welder Choosing shielding gas Choosing wire Learning MIG welding

Chapter 6 TIG welding
The equipment The process in action TIG-welding aluminum 6-4 6-8 6-13

Chapter 7

Plasma cutting/welding
7-2 7-3 7-5 7-8

Plasma-arc welding Plasma-arc cutting Choosing plasma cutting equipmentUsing a plasma cutter

Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Glossary Sourcelist Index

Safety and shop equipment Building a utility trailer

s1 9-1 QL-I sn IND-1

Introduction
Welding is a process critical to our present state of civilization and technical advancement, yet little understood and most often taken for granted. Unless exposed to the building, machinery or automotive trades, the averageperson never realizes how much we depend on the welding process, which is a fundamental part of the process of building most of what we depend on daily, including vehicles, buildings, appliances, bridges and a great deal more. In fact, once you really start to examine the objects around us, it's hard to imagine our world without the welding process. Architecturally speaking, we might all be living inone-room wood or adobe-brick houses if it weren't for welding. Certainly all large commercial and residential structures are built with a considerable "skeleton" of welded structural steel, and even most singlefamily, wood-framed houses are built using some welded components, even down to items like the electrical outlet boxes in the walls. Anyone who has watched the construction progress of a...
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