Herbart, Johann Friedrich.- Philosopher, psychologist and educator German. Decisive influence on modern psychology and pedagogy increases the scientific level. He had fervent disciples and producers of educational ideas in several countries in Europe and North America.
Life and Works. The life of H. goes quiet and without major external events. N. in Oldenburg, on May4, 1776. After completing his studies at the Gymnasium of the city, from which his grandfather had been a director, goes to the Univ of Jena. The contact with Fichte there is little effect on his thinking. Educational experience begins early in 1797, as tutor to the three sons of the governor of Interlaken (Switzerland), Von Steiger. In one of his trips to the Alpine country's school visitPestalozzi (v.), in Burgdorf, and a relationship established between the two that will leave traces in the work Herbartian. From 1802 acts as Privat-Dozent of Philosophy and Pedagogy, and later as extraordinary professor at the Univ of Göttingen, until the death of Kant (1808), is invited to take their place in Konigsberg. There develops a sustained and intense work of theoretical and practical eveneducation-opens an educational workshop attached to the chair-with no other notable incident that the designation made in 1831 to succeed Professor Hegel in Berlin, the proposal not was carried out. H. then retires to Göttingen and taught there almost until his death (1841).
Figure H. presents a very special prominence by his attitude frankly realistic in a time when he reaches full swingGerman idealism. Posture calm, balanced, rational, as opposed to romanticism prevails, Ortega y Gasset classified as a thinker of the Enlightenment, in a sense can be said that his pedagogy is a coherent expression, although developed and evolved, the optimism of the era intellectualist lights. Despite its publications metaphysical and psychological nature, his work is framed-writer in the earlyand sunset-eJ teaching in the subject. It begins with the letters to Von Steiger (1797-1999) on education of their children, and concludes with püedagogischer Umriss Vorlesungen (Outline for a course in pedagogy), 1835. But the most important milestone is 1806, with the publication of A1lgemeine Püdagogik aus dem Zweck der Erziehung abgeleitet (General Pedagogy derived from the purpose ofeducation), in which H. Pedagogy as a science is theoretical. The pedagogue KBnisberg manages to rise from the empirical elements and insights scattered to the concepts and logical systematization. Based on a set of principles that develops all-embracing spirit, provides for the first time posibililidad an approach to the problem of learning the scientific level. Given the choice science or art, believesthat both perspectives may relate to education, but he takes the first: "our area is science."
Psychology and Ethics. Pedagogy as a science takes your order, perfection, ethics, and the working class to its subject matter, human nature, knowledge that provides psychology. Ethics and Psychology are mainstays of this pedagogy, and is, therefore, conditioned by them. H. psychology leads to aphysical-mathematical image of the world, undoubtedly influenced by the progress of that science. He conceives the spiritual life as a mechanical representations. Denied the existence of the powers or faculties of the soul, and reduced it to a real monad itself is simple and free activity, although immortal, it all comes down to the game of representation. Talk of a static and a dynamic spirit,while the forces of attraction and repulsion, which create the personality of the subject.
The dynamics of the spirit is a kind of struggle for life, in which representations interact with each other as forces that attract or repel. Attract when they are of the same nature and in this case, they are a merger, if nature is diverse, the result of the encounter is an arrest, because one of...