Taking as a starting point for the last sixty years of the fifteenth century that guided the birth and development of typography, the aftermath of the emerging graphics initiatives and experiments in the sixteenth century with the creative energy that it gave rise to innovative rate designs , rules of composition, illustrations and bindings, along with representatives of greatprestige.
In this paper we review the major events that guided the transition and normalization centuries (centuries XVI to XIX). As regards the history of graphic design, include the influence they had made as the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, for business development and advertising activity.
It is also important to note that many political, social and religiousbackground of all time, have influenced the evolution or reverse with respect to print jobs, from creating the kinds of letters, the typographical work, to appearance of books, newspapers, encyclopedias and posters that will be discussed below.
2. HIGHLIGHTS DEVELOPMENTS IN THE XVI CENTURY
One of the decisive historical factors was the process of political devolution in 1543 culminated with theestablishment of censorship of the press, which ended the liberal creative and dynamic that characterized the production of printed during the previous half century.
However, one of the most important was the revival of calligraphy, which comes amid an absolute monarchy led by France and Spain, who established a bureaucracy that favored the progress of calligraphy while printing, in order of theChurch and the government was losing its sense of art and became a conservative activity in the service of totalitarian political and religious forces.
Thus, for many years, readable and harmonious Italian calligraphy were imitated in all major European states, for this reason the Italian language acquired great value in the sixteenth century and was released by their representatives ineducational purposes through their treatises and manuals .
Note the Italian masters trilogy formed by Ludovico degli Arrighi, Giovanni Antonio Tagliente and calligraphers calligrapher Giovanni Battista Palatino, who in 1540 brings a new calligraphic teaching practice alternately trying to educate through texts and engravings.
Due to political and economic conditions of the time, typography field typedesign is considered only for its function as a printing process and its greatest exponent was the Frenchman Claude Garamond, who had to live for subversion and favoritism, being cautious to pursue their studies, because at the time of practicing this work were persecuted for political or religious.
"The quality of type design, harmony between capital and lowercase letters and italics, and theprecise meaning and content ornamental traits are present in some of the very famous Garamond, cast in 1545, the most comprehensive of the entire Roman font ..."
In the same vein, John Baskerville was the founder of the English font and designed a genuine type in 1754 (Baskerville), which has remarkable clarity and elegance. Baskerville's contributions were very innovative and effective,including: the use of glossy paper to provide a crisp, bright variant will use or interline spacing between lines of printed text.
For the large production of books in this century, the decline of the creative impulse is accentuated xylographic degrades recorded to the extent that artists shy away from his work with this procedure and then introduced a new method: the intaglio engraving (on metalplate ) that lets you record directly stroke.
3. XVII CENTURY
In this century there was a consistent style or academic at all artistic or craft, and in turn began to use a metaphorical naming architecture allowed were displaced by the typography. In this sense, the architect Peter Behrens referred to that type (the letter) was one of the most eloquent means of expression of the era or style,...