Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Which of the following is the central purpose of punishment?
a. | To provide housing |
b. | To protect society |
c. | To carry out the criminal sentence |
d. | All of these |
____ 2. Corrections ideally serves which goal(s)?
a. | Moraloutrage |
b. | Protection |
c. | Punishment |
d. | Both protection and punishment |
____ 3. Corrections has a(n) _____ relationship with its environment.
a. | reciprocal |
b. | inverse |
c. | oppositional |
d. | purposeful |
____ 4. Which system of government divides power between federal and state governments?
a. | Federalism |
b. | Democracy |
c. | Communism |
d. |Capitalism |
____ 5. _____ is a method of applying scientific knowledge to practical purposes in a particular field.
a. | Technology |
b. | Language |
c. | Politics |
d. | Persuasions |
____ 6. The following is an example of corporal punishment:
a. | forgiveness. |
b. | whipping. |
c. | imprisonment. |
d. | religious education. |
____ 7. The belief that a punishmentinflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain inflicted is called:
a. | utilitarianism. |
b. | classical criminology. |
c. | the Enlightenment. |
d. | wergild. |
____ 8. The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as:
a. | benefit of clergy. |
b. | galley slavery. |
c. | wergild. |
d. | transportation. |
____ 9.Wergild developed as:
a. | a barter system. |
b. | a method for the king to bring his subjects directly under his rule. |
c. | a method of treating private wrongs as public crimes. |
d. | a system of compensation. |
____ 10. The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was:
a. | the king. |
b. | the sheriff. |
c. | the penitentiary. |
d. | thechurch. |
____ 11. The country that gave the world its first penitentiary is:
a. | England. |
b. | France. |
c. | Egypt. |
d. | the United States. |
____ 12. The _____ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.
a. | congregate system |
b. | solitary system |
c. | separate confinement system |
d. |segregated confinement system |
____ 13. The “congregate” system of prison discipline was first instituted at the:
a. | Walnut Street Jail. |
b. | Sing Sing Penitentiary. |
c. | Eastern Penitentiary. |
d. | Auburn Penitentiary. |
____ 14. Separate confinement was first implemented in:
a. | Eastern State Penitentiary. |
b. | Western State Penitentiary. |
c. | Auburn Penitentiary. |d. | Walnut Street Jail. |
____ 15. In the convict lease system, prisoners are:
a. | punished harshly. |
b. | transported. |
c. | used for labor by private interests. |
d. | confined to work in their cells. |
____ 16. The goal of rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the _____ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and thegravity of the crime.
a. | state |
b. | victim |
c. | offender |
d. | law |
____ 17. According to Clear, Cole, and Reisig, _____ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system.
a. | imprisonment |
b. | probation |
c. | parole |
d. | the death sentence |
____ 18. Experts usually cite _____ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.
a. | plea-bargainingpressures |
b. | community pressure |
c. | all of these |
d. | eyewitness error |
____ 19. _____ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished.
a. | Deterrence |
b. | Retribution |
c. | Incapacitation |
d. | Rehabilitation |
____ 20. Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the...