Humedales artificiales

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United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service

Part 637 Environmental Engineering National Engineering Handbook

Chapter 3 Constructed Wetlands

(210-VI-NEH, September 2002)

Chapter 3

Constructed Wetlands

Part 637 National Engineering Handbook

Issued September 2002

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in allits programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Centerat (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
(210-VI-NEH, September 2002)

Acknowledgments

Chapter 3, Constructed Wetlands forAnimal Waste Treatment, was developed under agreement with the Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Commission. The commission contracted with Victor W.E. Payne, environmental engineer, Payne Engineering, Auburn, Alabama, for its preparation. Donald L. Stettler, environmental engineer (retired), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), National Water and Climate Center, Portland, Oregon,coordinated the project. Dr. Robert L. Knight, wetland ecologist and internationally known treatment wetland authority, Gainesville, Florida, is acknowledged for his detailed review and his contribution of the section on plant establishment and maintenance. Acknowledged are review and comments provided by Barry Kintzer, national environmental engineer, NRCS, Conservation Engineering Division, andDavid C. Moffitt, environmental engineer, National Water Management Center, Fort Worth, Texas. Also acknowledged are the many from within the Natural Resources Conservation Service who added value to this chapter by volunteering to provide their review and comments.

(210-VI-NEH, September 2002)

3–i

Chapter 3

Constructed Wetlands

Part 637 National Engineering Handbook

3–ii(210-VI-NEH, September 2002)

Chapter 3

Constructed Wetlands

Part 1
Contents: 637.0300

Animal Waste Treatment
Introduction 3–1 (a) Purpose and scope ........................................................................................ 3–1 (b) Background ................................................................................................... 3–1 637.0301 Types ofconstructed wetlands 3–2

(a) Surface flow wetlands .................................................................................. 3–2 (b) Subsurface flow wetlands ............................................................................ 3–2 (c) Floating aquatic plant systems .................................................................... 3–4 637.0302 Benefits of surface flowwetlands for animal waste treatment 3–6 (a) Nutrient reductions ...................................................................................... 3–6 (b) Odor control .................................................................................................. 3–6 (c) Water quality improvement ......................................................................... 3–7 (d) Wildlifeenhancement ................................................................................... 3–7 (e) Aesthetics ....................................................................................................... 3–7 (f) Economic benefits ........................................................................................ 3–8 637.0303 Treatment process 3–8

(a) Biochemical conversions...
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