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Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication
Updated February 2006

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
I. Statement of Purpose
A. About the Uniform Requirements B. Potential Users of the Uniform Requirements C. How to Use the Uniform Requirements

II. Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reportingof Research
A. Authorship and Contributorship 1. Byline Authors 2. Contributors Listed in Acknowledgements B. Editorship 1. The Role of the Editor 2. Editorial Freedom C. Peer Review D. Conflicts of Interest 1. Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Individual Authors' Commitments 2. Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Project Support 3. Potential Conflicts of Interest Related toCommitments of Editors, Journal Staff, or Reviewers E. Privacy and Confidentiality 1. Patients and Study Participants 2. Authors and Reviewers F. Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research

III. Publishing and Editorial Issues Related to Publication In Biomedical Journals
A. Obligation to Publish Negative Studies B. Corrections, Retractions, and "Expressions of Concern" C. Copyright D. Overlapping Publications 1. Duplicate Submission 2. Redundant Publication 3. Acceptable Secondary Publication 4. Competing Manuscripts based on the Same Study a. Differences in Analysis or Interpretation b. Differences in Reported Methods or Results 5. Competing Manuscripts Based on the Same Database E. Correspondence F. Supplements, Theme Issues, and Special Series G. Electronic Publishing H.Advertising I. Medical Journals and the General Media J. Obligation to Register Clinical Trials

IV. Manuscript Preparation and Submission
A. Preparing a Manuscript for Submission to Biomedical Journals 1. a. General Principles b. Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs 2. Title page 3. Conflict of Interest Notification Page 4. Abstract and Key Words 5. Introduction 6. Methods a.Selection and Description of Participants b. Technical Information c. Statistics 7. Results 8. Discussion 9. References a. General Considerations Related to References b. Reference Style and Format 10. Tables 11. Illustrations (Figures) 12. Legends for Illustrations (Figures) 13. Units of Measurement 14. Abbreviations and Symbols B. Sending the Manuscript to the Journal

V. References
A. PrintReferences Cited in this Document B. Other Sources of Information Related to Biomedical Journals

VI. About the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors VII. Authors of the Uniform Requirements VIII. Use, Distribution, and Translation of the Uniform Requirements IX. Inquiries

I. Statement Of Purpose
I. A. About the Uniform Requirements A small group of editors of general medical journalsmet informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the National Library of Medicine, were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into theInternational Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually. The ICMJE gradually has broadened its concerns to include ethical principles related to publication in biomedical journals. The ICJME has produced multiple editions of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Over the years, issues have arisen that go beyond manuscript preparation,resulting in the development of a number of Separate Statements on editorial policy. The entire Uniform Requirements document was revised in 1997; sections were updated in May 1999 and May 2000. In May 2001, the ICMJE revised the sections related to potential conflict of interest. In 2003, the committee revised and reorganized the entire document and incorporated the Separate Statements into the text....
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