Because organizations can be viewed as systems,management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite toattempting to manage others
Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or asthe actions taken to reach one's intended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol(1841–1925) considers management to consistof six functions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
Another way ofthinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management asphilosophy.
Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, theshifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class.
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business...