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An International History

In memory of Ben Stinner His insightful intelligence, quick wit and engaging geniality delighted and inspired all who knew him

Organic Farming
An International History
Edited by

William Lockeretz
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

CABI is a trading name of CAB InternationalCABI Head Office Nosworthy Way Wallingford Oxfordshire OX10 8DE UK Tel: +44 (0)1491 832111 Fax: +44 (0)1491 833508 E-mail: Web site: CABI North American Office 875 Massachusetts Avenue 7th Floor Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Tel: +1 617 395 4056 Fax: +1 617 354 6875 E-mail:

©CAB International 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library, London, UK. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Organic farming: an international history / William Lockeretz, editor. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-85199-833-6(alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-1-84593-289-3 (ebook) 1. Organic farming--History. 2. Organic farming--Societies, etc. I. Lockeretz, William. II. Title. S605.5.0667 2007 631.5'84--dc22 2007012464 ISBN-13: 978 0 85199 833 6

Typeset by SPi, Pondicherry, India. Printed and bound in the UK by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge. The paper used for the text pages of this book is FSC certified. The FSC (ForestStewardship Council) is an international network to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.


Contributors Foreword Nadia El-Hage Scialabba I: 1. Origins and Principles What Explains the Rise of Organic Farming? W. Lockeretz The Origins of Organic Farming G. Vogt Organic Values M. Sligh and T. Cierpka The Science of Organic Farming D.H. Stinner The Evolution of Organic PracticeU. Niggli Policies and Markets The Development of Governmental Support for Organic Farming in Europe S. Padel and N. Lampkin

vii ix










II: 6.





7. The Organic Market J. Aschemann, U. Hamm, S. Naspetti and R. Zanoli 8. Development of Standards for Organic Farming O. Schmid III: Organizations and Institutions123


9. IFOAM and the History of the International Organic Movement B. Geier 10. The Soil Association P. Conford and P. Holden 11. Ecological Farmers Association and the Success of Swedish Organic Agriculture I. Källander 12. MAPO and the Argentinian Organic Movement D. Foguelman 13. NASAA and Organic Agriculture in Australia E. Wynen and S. Fritz 14. FiBL and Organic Research inSwitzerland U. Niggli 15. The Organic Trade Association K. DiMatteo and G. Gershuny IV: Challenges








16. A Look Towards the Future B. Geier, I. Källander, N. Lampkin, S. Padel, M. Sligh, U. Niggli, G. Vogt and W. Lockeretz Index




Aschemann, Jessica, Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, Faculty of OrganicAgricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. E-mail: j.aschemann@ Cierpka, Thomas, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, Charles-de-Gaulle-Str. 5, 53113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: Conford, Philip, 88 St. Pancras, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 7LR, UK. E-mail: DiMatteo, Katherine, Wolf &Associates, Inc., 90 George Lamb Road, Leyden, MA 01337, USA. E-mail: Foguelman, Dina, Movimiento Argentino para la Producción Orgánica (MAPO), Sarmiento 1562 6° F, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: Fritz, Sandy, Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority, 1194 Wattamolla Rd., Berry, NSW 2535, Australia. E-mail: Sandy.fritz@ Geier,...
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