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Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact
Ronald DiPippo, Ph.D.
Chancellor Professor Emeritus University of Massachusetts Dartmouth North Dartmouth, Massachusetts
AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG• LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO
Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA First edition 2005 Second edition 2008 Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone ( 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax ( 44) (0) 1865 853333; email:email@example.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation ofany methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978-0-7506-8620-4
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For my grandchildren, Kaiya Lee DiPippo Ella Rae DiPippo and Lucas Jasper Sincero Larson in the hope that their generation will reap the beneﬁts of geothermal energy to a far greaterextent than we did.
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Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgements to the First Edition PART ONE RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT xvii xix xxiii 1 3 4 4 7 10 11 11 13 14 16 17 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 25 26 30 34 35 35 37 39 40 41
1. Geology of Geothermal Regions 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The earthand its atmosphere 1.3 Active geothermal regions 1.4 Model of a hydrothermal geothermal resource 1.5 Other types of geothermal resources 1.5.1 Hot dry rock, HDR 1.5.2 Geopressure 1.5.3 Magma energy References Problems 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Objectives of an exploration program 2.3 Phases of an exploration program 2.3.1 Literature survey 2.3.2 Airborne survey2.3.3 Geologic survey 2.3.4 Hydrologic survey 2.3.5 Geochemical survey 2.3.6 Geophysical survey 2.4 Synthesis and interpretation 2.5 The next step: drilling References Problems 3. Geothermal Well Drilling 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Site preparation and drilling equipment
3.3 Drilling operations 3.4 Safety precautions References 4. Reservoir Engineering 4.1 Introduction 4.2Reservoir and well flow 4.2.1 Darcy’s Law 4.2.2 Reservoir-well model: ideal case 4.2.3 Reservoir-well model: basic principles 4.2.4 Liquid-only flow 4.2.5 Location of the flash horizon 4.2.6 Two-phase flow in the well 4.2.7 Complete model: reservoir to wellhead with wellbore flashing 4.3 Well testing 4.3.1 Desired information 4.3.2 Pressure and temperature instrumentation 4.3.3 Direct mass flow rate...