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Submitted to Jubilee House Community December 21, 2001 USAID Purchase Order Number: 524-0-00-01-00014-5362
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Investigation of the Potters for Peace Colloidal Silver Impregnated Ceramic Filter
Report 1: Intrinsic Effectiveness

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Daniele S. Lantagne AlethiaEnvironmental 29 Seattle Street Allston, MA 02134 617.549.1586 daniele@alethia.cc

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Investigation of the Potters for Peace Colloidal Silver Impregnated Ceramic Filter Report 1: Intrinsic Effectiveness

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Table of Contents
1 PROJECT BACKGROUND............................................................................................................ 7 1.1 1.22 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 4 3.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8 9 HURRICANE MITCH, USAID, AND CACEDRF............................................................................ 7 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN NICARAGUA ....................................................................... 9 INITIAL FILTER DESIGN.............................................................................................................. 12 FILTER IMPLEMENTATION .......................................................................................................... 13 POTTERS FOR PEACE .................................................................................................................. 14 THE PFP FILTER FACTORY........................................................................................................ 14 WATERBORNE DISEASE ............................................................................................................. 17 SILVER HUMAN HEALTH STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS ........................................................ 23 SILVER IN CERAMICS................................................................................................................. 25 MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF SILVER ......................................................................................... 26 SILVER IN MEDICINE .................................................................................................................. 30 SILVER IN THE PFP FILTER – SUMMARY (NOT INCLUDED IN REPORT 2)................................... 30 MECHANISM OF FLOW THROUGH THE PFP FILTER ..................................................................... 31 CHANGES IN FILTRATION RATE OVER TIME ............................................................................... 39 FINISHED WATER QUALITY AT DIFFERENT FILTRATION RATES................................................. 41 FILTRATION RATE CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH............. 45 APPLICATION METHOD INVESTIGATION..................................................................................... 47 FINISHED WATER QUALITY AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF COLLOIDAL SILVER ............. 49 COLLOIDAL SILVER CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH .......... 51 INVESTIGATION OF NON-INDICATOR BACTERIA FOUND ON PLATES.......................................... 52 STUDIES OUTSIDE NICARAGUA .................................................................................................. 52 STUDIES WITHIN NICARAGUA: CIRA-UNAN .......................................................................... 53 MICROBIOLOGICAL CHALLENGE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................... 58

THE PFPFILTER.......................................................................................................................... 12

WATERBORNE DISEASE ........................................................................................................... 17 COLLOIDAL SILVER AS A DISINFECTANT ......................................................................... 22

FILTRATION INVESTIGATIONS...
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