1. POINT OF VIEW
1.1.1 THE AUTHOR, THE IMPLIED AUTHOR AND THE NARRATOR
Real ______Implied _____ Narrator ____ Naratee ____ Implied _____ Real
Author Author reader reader
Implied author: image create himself or herself “just anidea”.
Narrator: the speaker voice.
Narratee: the person adrecessed in a text.
Implied reader: the idea that the author has in the mind when write the book. The person who are adrecessed his/her book. Idealised.
NARRATIVE FICTION: is the narration of a succession of fictional events.
NARRATION: - a communication process in which the narrative as message is transmitted by addresser toaddressee.
The term EVENTS is used to refer to something that happens.
STORY designates the narrated events, abstracted from their disposition in the text and reconstructed in their chronological order, together with the participants in these events.
TEXT is what we read. In it, the events do not necessarily appear in chronological order.
Since the text is a spoken or written discourse, it impliessomeone who speaks or writes it. The act or process of production is called NARRATION.
The NARRATOR can be only defined as the narrative voice or speaker of the text.
The NARRATEE is the agent which is at the very least implicitly addressed by the narrator.
1.1.2 TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY OF THE NARRATOR
A. The narrative levels to which the narrator belongs: the narrator can be EXTRADIEGETIC (isabove the story he narrates), INTRADIEGETIC (the most common. The level of the story of the events themselves), and HYPODIEGETIC (the stories told by the fictional characters, and embedding in this direction is theoretically infinite).
B. The extent of participation in the story:
● HETERODIEGETIC (non participant. He/She does not appear in the story as a character).
○All- knowing oromniscient ( the narration sees into the minds of any of the
characters, explains and interprets at will).
● Editorial omniscient (he/she adds an occasional comment or opinion).
●Impartial omniscience (Presents the thoughts and actions of the characters but does not judge them or comment on them).
○ Limited or selective omniscience (3rd person, the author is absent.Sees events through the eyes of a single character, whether a major or minor one).
○ Objective or “fly-on-the-wall” point of view ( The exact description of external things).
● HOMODIEGETIC (participant)
○ As a protagonist.
○ As a witness (testigo) (A minor character standing a little to one side, watching a story unfold that mainly involves someone else).
C. Thedegree of perceptibility.
a) COVERTNESS (somebody tells the story)
b) OVERTNESS (the maxim degree as overtness, an I narrator)
- Description of setting.
- Identification of characters (the naming of characters).
- Temporal summary.
- Definition of character.
- Reports of what the characters did not think or say.
- On the story:
- On the narration.
D. Reliability / Unreliability (of the narrator)
Causes for unreliability:
○ the narrator’s limited knowledge.
○ the narrator’s personal involvement.
○ the narrator’s value picture is questionable.
Sources of unreliability:
When the facts contradict the narrator’s view
When theoutcome of the action proves the narrator wrong.
When the views of other characters constantly clash with those of the
When the narrator’s language contains internal contradictions.
C. The degree of perceptibility, ranging from a maximum of covertness to a maximum of overtness.
Sigs of overtness: description of...