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Tatiana González Pérez
Adv. English Class
January 31, 2011
1. Denotation: It is an exact definition to a word.
* Examples:
a. Heart: an organ that circulates blood throughout the body.
b. Sweater: a knitted garment for the upper body.
2. Connotation: Association or ideas implied by a particular word.
* Examples:
a. Pink: connotes femininity.
b.Apple: connotes sin.
3. Onomatopoeia: using words that sound like the thing it is describing.
* Examples:
a. Achoo: used to represent the sound of a sneeze.
b. Crunch: to chew, press, or grind with a sound.
4. Paraphrase: Is to express the same message in different words.
* Examples:
a. “I’m not afraid of storms, for I’m learning how to sail my ship.” (Louisa MayAlcott) Paraphrasing: By having balance in my life I don’t worry too much about despair.
b. “It’s cool to find out that you don’t need a boyfriend to be happy.” (Drew Barrymore)Paraphrasing: Your happiness doesn’t have to come from others.
5. Irony: To say something and mean something else.
* Examples:
a. Sarcastic Irony:
* The boy is so intelligent that he failed in all thesubjects.
b. Dramatic Irony:
* “Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing.”
6. Satire: Writing which ridicules its subject.
* Examples:
a. Inflation: Two boys arguing over a possession of a car can be inflated into an interstellar war.
b. Diminution: The first portion of Gulliver's Travels, set in the fictitious land of Lilliput.
7. Tone: Conveying emotions throughwords.
* Examples:
a. Joy
b. Embarrassed
8. Figures of Speech: Way of using language in a figurative or non literal sense, to give emotional intensity.
* Examples:
a. Simile: Direct Comparison
* You were as brave as a lion.
* She is as thin as a toothpick.
b. Metaphor: Indirect comparison
* A rainbow of flowers.
* Her hairs are rays from the sun.c. Personification: Give human attributes to something non human.
* “The clouds were low and hairy in the skies.”(Robert Frost)
* A star winked at me.
d. Hyperbole: An exaggeration
* It’s so hot that I feel like I’m melting.
* I’m so hungry I could eat the whole fridge.

9. Musical Devices: Use of words for auditory effects can convey meaning or mood to a work.
a. Alliteration: To repeat the initial consonant sound.
* “I saw it there, but I saw nothing in it, except the boiling bubbles.” Inferno (Dante) pg.261 The repetition of the “b”
* In Sir Phillip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella, the poet states: "Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite" (Line 13). The repetition of  the "t"
b. Consonance: The repetition of the finalconsonant sounds of important words.
* Dawn goes down
* Some mammals are clammy.
c. Assonance: The repeating of sounds in words that are close together.
* I tried to light the fire.
* "I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless."
(Thin Lizzy, "With Love)
10. Refrain: Group of verses repeated at intervals.
* Examples:
a. `Prophet!' said I, `thing ofevil! - Prophet still, if bird or devil! -
Whether tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,
Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted -
On this home by horror haunted - tell me truly, I implore -
Is there - is there balm in Gilead? - tell me - tell me, I implore!'
Quoth the raven, `Nevermore.'

`Prophet!' said I, `thing of evil! - Prophet still, if bird ordevil!
By that Heaven that bends above us - by that God we both adore -
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named Lenore -
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named Lenore?'
Quoth the raven, `Nevermore.' (The Raven) Edgar Allen Poe

b. If I have to be your best friend
If that’s all that I can get...
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