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ERICK HERRERA

WILLIAM LIPKIN

ARTICLES’ PAPER

STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
PS 2110-01

NOVEMBER 30, 2010
FALL ‘10
Birthday Cake Federalism
According to Aaron Wildavsky, The United States’ Federal Government is like a cake with different layers. The top layer is the national, the middle layer is the states and the lower layer is the local. He said that the mayor problem that the layercake model brings is that it doesn’t show its difference between layers, because they all share the same responsibilities. They’re just separated by the jurisdiction of each layer. They all rather collaborate among them and set policies and help on problems. So, it’s showed that the American Government work altogether.
It is also said, that the American Government is a “Parallel Play”. Thismeans that every layer has room for each agency, so they can work together. There was some concern if the parallel line was really mixed to form a marble, rather than a layer cake. Daniel Elazar showed once, that Cooperative Federalism was the principle rule from the outsiders; believing that it would succeed. The government grows from middle of the 1960s, everything was falling and nobody knew whowas on top or bottom. It is said as well that big government, majority of their funds goes to inappropriate programs that they may not need it.
Fruitcake Federalism
This cake is when the layer cake and the marble cake are combined, and in which the fruitcake succeed. It is said that at the federal level, when it comes to budget it is always Christmas time. Is like whoever comes first take thebest deals and whoever is not on it, don’t see what other take. Also, Americans should change their cook; if they don’t want to keep this fruitcake. But, Wildavsky’s opinion is that the American government might try to change what make such this type of cake. “Birthday cake federalism” is for only one person and every people pick the one that they most like. Everybody eat their own cake, and itis honor in different time and in different styles. And he always thought “that federalism was supposed to be about diversity, variety, and not a little competition” (Wildavsky, p. 54, 1982). The author also said that federalism should keep people together, and work together, not set them apart. And “federal structure serves to multiply the offices and opportunities for increasing the quantity butnot the quality of public policy” (Wildavsky, p. 55, 1982), meaning that it should be more agencies helping people that it result.
In my opinion, I agree with the birthday cake of federalism. This is because everyone should choose their own cake accordingly to their needs and where they fit. Supporter of the government and the own government most of the time look for their own benefit instead ofthe one for the people (society). They need to start doing what they promise, so people can start trusting the government. And if they show they care, everybody work for a better result.

The ABC of Vouchers and Politics
This article wrote by Richard S. Dunham said that it have decreased on the quality of secondary education in the U.S. For this reason had been many suggestions forimprovement. People accuse teachers for not implementing the right technique and that they should find new ways or implement the old ones. Even George W. Bush said that schools those only schools that produce high standards students should be granted with federal funds. One thing that it’s always a debate for presidential candidate is school vouchers. Because, with this voucher parents can take their kidsto any school that fit better for them and their kids. This article shows some concerns that the parents have. The author stated that presidential candidates; George W. Bush and Al Gore, were showed on newspapers attending schools to see its progress; making the topic of education, one of the priority subjects on presidential debate.
Candidates Al Gore and George W. Bush were proposing...
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