THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
After the first phase of industrialization (England) and its extension (Europe, USA and Japan) began a new cycle (overcome the crisis of 1873) that would last until the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914. During this period, Britain lost itsleadership in the interests of other powers.
The characterized the following features:
The use of new energy sourcesThe development of new sectors of production
Changes in the organization of production and work
Living an working in 19th century in Industrial ( Towns)
New forms of venture capital
The formation of a global market expansion
N ew energy sources
If steam had constituted the main source of energy during the First Industrial Revolution, during the Second,developed new ones:
Helped fuel the combustion engine and automotive, which reached maturity with H. Ford in the first third of the twentieth century.
N ew production sectors
A company in the textile and steel, real engines of the first industrialization, new sectors shall be set pointers between 1870 and 1914:
• The Chemical Industry. Made dyes, explosives (dynamite, Nobel), fertilizers,medicines, artificial fibers (nylon), rubber, etc.
Billboard Factory colours Billboard
• The new steel. Transform nickel, aluminum and other metals. The iron was subjected to refining new processes through theBessemer converter or Siemens-Martin, encouraging the development of industry Armement that would achieve unprecedentedprogress in the years before the First World War .
• T he food industries: sterilized cans (1875), industrial refrigeration(1878), etc.
N ew forms of production control and job
T he complexity of the business structure and production processes highlighted in this second phase of industrialization the need for neworganizational systems.
They emphasized two:
Helooked for the scientific planning of the production process in the company. The idea came from F. Taylor who in his work "The Principles of Scientific Management",published in 1911, theorized about the specialization of job functions and standardizing the procedures.
According to him the tasks should be carried out with the least effort and in the shortest time possible by eliminatingunnecessary steps and movements in order to reduce manufacturing costs. The worker must be adequately isolated and have all the elements at its disposal and handling within easy reach . The mental and manual work should be separated. Corresponds to first organize, provide guidelines and monitor the latter. Set a strict timing of each task in order to prevent the neglect or waste of time for theoperator.
Ealth Chain ("Fordism")
Ford assembly line
Successfully applied in the automobile factories of Henry Ford means maximum workspecialization, optimization of yields and cheaper goods, allowing them access to a growing number of consumers.
T hese procedures broke with the production methods of thepast, namely those in which manufacturing is organized artisans and workerscreated and transformed the raw material within a single process, with little specialization. The introduction of new systems generated important social problems such as alienating dehumanization entailed the workspace.
Before the industrial revolution , the roads without change for 2.000 old years were very humid and Buddy in winter and rough and rocky whendry.
The law 1555 said that the members of a parish ( town) had to work during four ( later six) days a year in local sections of the road. In great part inefficient because the :
1) Villagers had no skill or tools.
2) They resented the loss of time for their own work.
3) They didn’t feel that the roads were of use to...
Leer documento completo
Regístrate para leer el documento completo.