Was a spiritual teacher in the north eastern region of the Indian subcontinent who founded Buddhism. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the SupremeBuddha, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one."
The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c. 563 BC to 483 BC.Gautama, also known as Śākyamuni or Shakyamuni (sage of the Shakyas), is the key figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have beensummarized after his death and memorized by his followers.
The primary sources of information regarding Siddhartha Gautama's life are the Buddhist texts. According to these, the Buddha and his monks spentfour months each year discussing and rehearsing his teachings, and after his death his monks set about preserving them.
Siddhartha was born in Lumbini and raised in the small kingdom orprincipality of Kapilvastu, both of which are in modern day Nepal. At the time of the Buddha's birth, the area was at or beyond the boundary of Vedic civilization.
The day of the Buddha's birth is widelycelebrated in Theravada countries as Vesak. Various sources hold that the Buddha's mother died at his birth, a few days or seven days later. The infant was given the name Siddhartha, meaning "he whoachieves his aim".
Siddhartha, said to have been destined to a luxurious life as a prince, had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) especially built for him. His father, King Śuddhodana, wishing forSiddhartha to be a great king, shielded his son from religious teachings or knowledge of human suffering.
As the boy reached the age of 16, his father arranged his marriage to Yaśodharā, a cousin ofthe same age. According to the traditional account, in time, she gave birth to a son, Rahula.
According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced...