Teamwork (ingles)

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TEAMWORK

Introduction

In this work, we talk about teamwork and their different characteristics in order to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to be an effective team member, explore and analyze the principles of good teamwork. Also, we argue that a joint activity is being carried out by individuals who share certain mental properties specifications for the proper performance of thedifferent activities carried out not only a company but also in everyday life.
Also, we mention that teamwork is essential for competing in today's global arena, where individual perfection is not as desirable as a high level of collective performance.

TEAMWORK
Historical
At the end of the nineteenth century to the beginning of this century, Organizations thought was dominated by ScientificManagement movement, characterized by the work of Taylor, Fayol, etc. These authors contented themselves with a classical conception of motivation in which was reduced to the minimum expression. They were inspired, indeed, on the principle of hedonism, so attractive by liberal economists, according to which men were seeking the maximum pleasure in return for minimal effort. 
Applying to the worldof work, this principle came to a conception of human nature which can be summarized as "men feel repugnance for work for the effort and responsibility involved. If work, is to get a salary (incitement economic) to enable them to meet certain needs outside of work. Because they are passive and lack of interest in his work, men should be directed and require strict supervision of 
behavior. It istherefore an economical reasons which encourages men to work. 
By 1925, the school comes Human Relations resulting in a new language management: motivation, leadership, communication, informal organization, etc. It not only talks of authority, hierarchy, or rationalization of work. 
Hawthorne's experience confirmed that the rewards economists are not the only motivation of man, but other typesof rewards: the social, symbolic, not material. The school was highlighted men in the work situation are not isolated from each other, but are united together by relationships, particularly within the framework of groups. 
From this point of view, men have needs attempting to meet social in the same place work. How to get satisfaction from the fact belong to groups, men are sensitiveto inducements, rules, instructions, etc., coming from these groups. These incentives give rise to powerful motivational forces able to overshadow 
level of financial inducements. This will pass the concept of homo economicus (classical school) than homo socialis (HR school). The central idea of this school is the resolution of operational problems, the organization from improving the HR (the relationship ofsubordination among others) and use groups to mobilize and channel the energies behavior in the desired direction. 
Different historical circumstances and developments work, unionization, etc. helped make increasingly problematic control of what would be the social part of the organizations, this has been developed a social psychology that is central mainly in regard to motivationand leadership.

Definition of Teamwork

Every organization is fundamentally a team consisting of its members. Since the birth of this, the basic agreement that set its members is to work together, that is, to train a team.
This brings two important concepts to clarify: team and teamwork.
The team is assigned or set of persons' self, according to skills and competencies; to fulfill a particular goal underthe leadership of a coordinator.
Teamwork refers to the number of strategies, procedures and methodologies used by a group of people to achieve the goals.

Some of the various definitions of teamwork are:
• “Reduced number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a purpose, a scope of work and a joint planning and shared mutual responsibility”. - Katzenbach y K. Smith....
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