Tecnologia

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Copyright © 2010, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the writtenpermission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2853-7

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

Preface

All engineering students should know basic civil engineering since they need interaction with civilengineers in their routine works. Hence all important aspects of civil engineering are taught as elements of civil engineering in all over the world. It covers entire syllabus on Basic Civil Engineering. The author has tried to make it students friendly by providing neat sketches and illustrations with practical problems, wherever necessary. Author hopes that students and faculty will receive this bookwhole-heartedly. Corrections, if any and suggestions for improvement are welcome. S.S. BHAVIKATTI

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Contents

Preface

v

UNIT - I: CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1 TRADITIONAL MATERIALS
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Stones 3 Bricks 11 Lime 16 Cement 18 Timber 23 Questions 31

1–70
3–32

2

MORTARS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Sand 33 Cement Mortar 34 LimeMortar 35 Mud Mortar 36 Special Mortar 37 Tests on Mortar 37 Questions 38

33–38

3

CONCRETE
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Plain Concrete 39 Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) 49 Reinforced Brick Concrete (RBC) 50 Prestressed Concrete (PSC) 50 Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 51

39–54

CONTENTS

3.6 3.7

Cellular Concrete 52 Ferro-Cement 52 Questions 53

4

METALS AS BUILDING MATERIALS4.1 4.2 4.3. Ferrous Metals 55 Aluminium 57 Copper 58 Questions 58

55–58

5

MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING MATERIALS
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Glass 59 Plastics 60 Bitumen 62 Asbestos 62 Paints 63 Distempers 65 Varnishes 65 Solid and Hollow Concrete Blocks 66 Roofing and Flooring Tiles 67 Questions 68

59–69

UNIT - II: BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
6 BUILDING PLANNING
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.46.5 6.6 6.7 Elements of a Building 73 Basic Requirements of a Building 76 Planning 77 Planning Suitable Orientation 77 Planning for Energy Efficiency 78 Planning for Suitable Utility 78 Planning for Meeting Other Requirements 79 Questions 81

71–136
73–81

7

FOUNDATIONS
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Dimensions of Foundation 82 Conventional Spread Footings 83 R.C.C. Footings 84 Grillage Footing 8682–91

CONTENTS

7.5 7.6 7.7

Arch Foundation 87 Pile Foundations 87 Foundations in Black Cotton Soil 89 Questions 91

8

SUPER STRUCTURES
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 Types of Super Structures Based on the Method of Load Transfer 92 Walls 93 Stone Masonry 94 Brick Masonry 97 Plastering 100 Pointing 101 Flooring 101 Roof 105 Doors and Windows 113 Lintels 122 Stairs 123Questions 126

92–127

9

DAMPNESS AND ITS PREVENTION
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Causes of Dampness 128 Ill-Effects of Dampness 129 Requirements of an Ideal Material for Damp Proofing 129 Materials for Damp Proofing 130 Methods of Damp Proofing 130 Questions 132

128–132

10 COST EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES IN MASS HOUSING SCHEMES
10.1 Minimum Standards 133 10.2 Approach to Cost EffectiveMass Housing Schemes 134 10.3 Cost Effective Construction Techniques 135 Questions 135

133–135

UNIT - III: SURVEYING
11 INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
11.1 Object and Uses of Surveying 139 11.2 Primary Divisions in Surveying 140

137–236
139–148

CONTENTS

11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8

Fundamental Principles of Surveying 141 Classification of Surveying 142 Plans and Maps 143 Scales...
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