2001, 34, 329–332
3 (FALL 2001)
THE EFFECTS OF FORM TRAINING ON FOUL-SHOOTING PERFORMANCE IN MEMBERS OF A WOMEN’S COLLEGE BASKETBALL TEAM CHRIS N. KLADOPOULOS
JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY CENTER OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK
The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shootingperformance was evaluated in 3 players of a women’s NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shootingperformance. DESCRIPTORS: sports, athletic performance, basketball, skill training, behavioral coaching
In various sports settings, researchers have demonstrated changes in athletic performance with the application of behavioral coaching procedures. Such procedures typically involve performance-based consequences, skill training, or both. For example, remediation of errors was one component of abehavioral coaching technique that effectively enhanced skill acquisition in football, gymnastics, and tennis (Allison & Ayllon, 1980). Similarly, error correction was combined with differential consequences to decrease errors in components of swimming strokes (Koop & Martin, 1983). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of form training on foul-shooting performance andproper shooting form. METHOD Participants, Materials, and Setting Three members of a women’s NCAA Division II college basketball team voluntarily
We thank the players on the women’s basketball team who participated in this study and Tammi Roff and Eric Quijano for their assistance. Address correspondence to Jennifer J. McComas, University of Minnesota, Special Education Programs, Department ofEducational Psychology, 224 Burton Hall, 178 Pillsbury Dr. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455.
enrolled in the study between seasons to improve their foul-shooting performance. All participants were 19 to 20 years old and played for the same team with the same coach the previous season. Participants 1, 2, and 3 played primarily point guard, guard, and point guard, respectively. Only Participant 3started the season before the intervention. Participants 1 and 3 were starters the season following intervention. All sessions were conducted on an ofﬁcial NCAA basketball court using an ofﬁcial women’s NCAA basketball. Both baskets were used and were counterbalanced across sessions. A videocamera was used to record sessions. Dependent Variables Two dependent variables were evaluated for eachparticipant. First, the percentage of shots made was calculated for each 10-shot session. Each shot was recorded as made or missed. A made shot was deﬁned as one in which the basketball fell though the hoop without making contact with the backboard. A shot was not counted as made if it hit the backboard before falling through the hoop. This stringent deﬁnition of a made shot was used during the study toeliminate the effects of the backboard on shot performance and
CHRIS N. KLADOPOULOS and JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS
Table 1 Form Training Description
1. Place shooting foot (same side as shooting hand) as close to the foul line as possible while remaining behind it (vertical position) and stand at the center of the foul line as indicated bydot in the center of all foul lines on regulation basketball courts (horizontal position). 2. The balls of both feet should maintain contact with the ﬂoor from before the shot until the ball reaches the basket. 3. Keep feet in approximately the same location and position for every shot. 1. Look up toward basket rim before shooting. 2. Head should remain in about the same position throughout the...