Wednesday, January 27, 2010
literature reports that some tactile properties outh satisfaction” (Fosa brothy, mouth-waterncrease in salivation ns 12.3% sodium (e.g., ndable that foods conThe detection threshwhich, interestingly, is ess, lower than that for altiness. In general, the pproximately one tenth ion of MSG is roughly It has also been shown
FIGURE 4 Formulas ofthe most common ﬂavor enhancers: AMP precursor, [inosine 59-monophosphate(IMP)], GMP and monosodium glutamate (MSG).
Wednesday, January 27, 2010
by Yamaguchi and Takashashi (1984) that for an equal sensation of saltiness, the sodium provided by sodium chloride can be reduced and compensated for by much lower amounts of
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Tomato 246 p Green asparagus 49 ﬁ922S SUPPLEMENT 922S Corn 106 SUPPLEMENT Green peas 106 e Onion 51 TABLE 1 foods to make soups andTABLEmight conceivably have been stocks 1 foo t Potato 10 to achieve a combination of glutamate and 5-ribonucleotides, to t a Mushroom have greatly enhanced the umami taste. Thus, it 42 Free glutamic acid in foods Free glutamic acid in foods which would wh Shiitake mushroom (fresh) 71 s is commonknowledge in Japan that seaweed and bonito make is c Fruits Food category item Free glutamic acid S Food category itemFrance that meat (or ﬁsh) and vegetables make Free glutamic acid tastier soups, in tast Avocado 18 p more ﬂavorful stocks, and in Italy that cheese or tomato mo Apple mg/100 g mg/100 4 g g cooked(V. labrusca) produces a tastier dish. The combination coo Grape with seafood 5 of andpoultry glutaMeat and poultry Kiwi of c t Meatthese food ingredients would certainly have brought 5 s Beef 10 mate Cheese and 5-ribonucleotides together in sufﬁcient amounts to Beef 10 ma Pork 9 Emmenthaler 308 t impart a greatly enhanced umami taste to the foods prepared Pork 9 imp Chicken 22 Parmegiano 1680 Chicken 22 a from them. reggiano from Seafood Cheddar cheese 182 Seafood t Scallop 140Milk Scallop 140 w Snow crab 19 Snow crab 19 1 Cow Natural occurrence Blue crab 43 a Na Blue crab 43 4 Goat Alaska king crab 72 i Alaska king crab is a major constituent of food proteins (plant 7219 Human breast milk Glutamic acid White shrimp 20 G White shrimp 20 Fish sauce Seaweed and animal). In addition, free glutamic acid is present natuSeaweed and China 828 p Dried lever 1378 rally in mostfoods, such as meat, poultry, seafood and vegeDried lever 1378 rall Japan 1383 Kelp 1608 tables (Table 1) (Ninomiya 1998). Two ribonucleotides that Kelp 1608 Indonesia 727 tab Wakame (Undaria pinnetiﬁda) 9 Wakame (Undaria to the umami taste, 5-inosinate 621 59 contribute most pinnetiﬁda) and Malaysia Vegetable con Vegetable guanylate, are also present in many foods. Inosinate 948 is found MyanmarCabbage 50 gua Cabbage 50 primarily in meats, whereas guanylate is more abundant in Philippine 988 Spinach 48 prim Spinach 48 Thailand 950 Tomato 246 plants. Another ribonucleotide, 5-adenylate, is abundant in Tomato 246 pla Vietnam 1370 Green asparagus 49 ﬁsh and shellﬁsh (Table 2). Green asparagus 49 ﬁsh Corn 106 Soy sauce Ripening or maturation. The ripening of vegetables genF Corn 106 R Greenpeas 106 China makes them more ﬂavorful. For example, ﬂavor 926 erally peas maturaGreen 106 Onion 51 Japan 782 era Onion 51 tion in ripening tomatoes has been related to the increase in Potato 10 Korea 1264 tion Potato 10 their natural contents of free amino acids (e.g., glutamate), Mushroom 42 Philippine 412 the Mushroom B Shiitake mushroom (fresh) 71 sugars and organic acids (Inaba et al. 1980,Kader et 42 1977, al. Fermented beans Shiitake 71 sug P Fruits Stevens mushroom (fresh)and 1977b). Okumura et al.136 et al. (Japan) (1968) Natto/Soy beans1977a Fruits C Ste Avocado 18 prepared synthetic extractsAfrica) Daw dawa/Soy beans (West of tomato containing citric acid, 965 Avocado 18 S Apple 4 pre Soumbara/Locust beans (West phosphate, magnesium 4sulfate, 1700 glucose, potassium hydrogen...