Uml reference

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The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual

The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual

Ja m e s Ru m b a u g h Ivar Ja cobs on Gra dy B o oc h

ADDISON-WESLEY
An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Reading, Massachusetts • Harlow, England • Menlo Park, California Berkeley, California • Don Mills, Ontario • Sydney Bonn • Amsterdam • Tokyo • Mexico City

Many of thedesignations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book and Addison-Wesley was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Unified Modeling Language, UML, and the UML cube logo are trademarks of the Object Management Group. Some material in this book is derived fromthe Object Management Group UML Specification documentation. Used by permission of the Object Management Group. The authors and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of theuse of the information or programs contained herein. The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for special sales. For more information, please contact: AWL Direct Sales Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. One Jacob Way Reading, Massachusetts 01867 (781) 944-3700 Visit AW on the Web: www.awl.com/cseng/ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rumbaugh, James. The unifiedmodeling language reference manual / James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch. p. cm. — (The Addison-Wesley object technology series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-201-30998-X 1. Computer software—Development. 2. UML (Computer science) I. Jacobson, Ivar. II. Booch, Grady. III. Title. IV. Series. QA76.76.D47R86 1999 005.1—dc21 98-33392 CIP Copyright © 1999 by AddisonWesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada. Executive Editor: J. Carter Shanklin EditorialAssistant: Kristin Erickson Copy Editor: Arlene Richman Cover Designer: Simone R. Payment ISBN 0-201-30998-X Text printed on recycled and acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – MA – 03 02 01 00 99 98 First printing, December 1998 Project Editor: Krysia Bebick Production Manager: Jacquelyn Young Compositor: James Rumbaugh

For Madeline, Nick and Alex —Jim

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Outline of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Encyclopedia ArticleFormatting Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii Syntax Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv For More Information . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi

Part 1: Background
Chapter 1: UML Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Brief Summary of UML. . . . . . . . . . . ....
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