Astm a433

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Designation: E 433 – 71 (Reapproved 1997)

An American National Standard

Standard Reference Photographs for

Liquid Penetrant Inspection1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 433; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year oflast reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

4. Identification
4.1 The types of discontinuity indications covered by these
reference photographs are listed and described in Table 1. Each
type of discontinuity indication is designated by a Roman
numeral. The class of indication is designated by the letters A
through D.Individual photographs within type and class are
identified by numbers. Each reference photograph is, therefore,
identified with the proper Roman numeral, letter, and number.

1. Scope
1.1 These reference photographs are supplied as a means of
establishing types and characteristics of surface discontinuities
detectable by the penetrant inspection methods. They may be
used as a reference foracceptance standards, specifications and
1.2 Actual dimensions including maximum length of indications and number of indications per unit area must be
specified by the users of this document. No attempt has been
made to establish limits of acceptability or the metallurgical
cause of a discontinuity.

TABLE 1 Reference Photographs, Indication Types

NOTE 1—Examples of these referencephotographs are shown in Figs.


3. Classifications
3.1 Types—For the purposes of this standard there are two
types of indications, which are defined as follows:
3.1.1 Type I Indications—Those in which neither of the
measurable dimensions is greater than three times the other.
3.1.2 Type II Indications—Those in which one of the
measurable dimensions is at least three times greaterthan the
3.2 Classes—For purposes of this standard there are four
classes of indications which are defined as follows:
A. Single
B. Multiple unaligned
C. Multiple aligned
D. Intersection of surfaces (threads, corners, fillets, etc.)



2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
E 165 Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination2
2.2 ASTM Adjuncts:
ReferencePhotographs for Penetrant Inspection3




multiple unaligned
multiple aligned
intersection of surfaces (threads, corners,
fillets, etc.)
multiple unaligned
multiple aligned
intersection of surfaces (threads, corners,
fillets, etc.)

Fig. No.
I-A1, 2
I-B1, 2, 3, 4
I-C1, 2
II-A1, 2, 3, 4
II-B1, 2, 3
II-C1, 2, 3, 4
II-D1, 2, 3,4, 5

5. Method of Preparation
5.1 The reference photographs were reproduced from master photographs which are the property of ASTM. The photographs retain the original photographic contrast.
6. Basis for Use of Reference Photographs
6.1 These reference photographs are intended for use when
specified in the inquiry, contract, order material specification,
or applicable code, and when theseverity is mutually agreed
upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. It is
recognized that it is impossible to rigidly interpret indications
from a set of photographic references. Consequently, there is a
need for close cooperation between manufacturer and purchaser.
6.2 Zones of inspection and severity levels in each zone
shall be shown on applicable drawings or otherwise specified.Unless otherwise specified all accessible surfaces shall be
6.3 These reference photographs are intended to depict
penetrant indications of surface discontinuities. They are not
intended to indicate the depth of such discontinuities.

These reference photographs are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee
E-7 on Nondestructive Testing and are the direct responsibility of...
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