FROM DOSTOEVSKY TO SARTRE
Edited, with an introduction, prefaces, and new translations by WALTER KAUFMANN
MERIDIAN BOOKS, INC. New York
Born in Freiburg, Germany, Walter Kaufmann is a graduate of Williams College. He received his doctorate from Har-vard University in 1947 and in the same year joined the staff of Princeton University, where heis now Associate Professor of Philosophy. A frequent contributor to scholarly periodicals, he is also editor of the Portable Nietzsche and author of Nietzsche (MERIDIAN BOOKS).
A Meridian Books Original Edition First published by Meridian Books, Inc., October 1956 First printing September 1956 Second printing February 1957 Third printing March 1957 Fourth printing June 1957 Fifth printingOctober 1957 Sixth printing March 1958 Seventh printing June 1958 Eighth printing November 1958 Ninth printing April 1959 Tenth printing August 1959 Eleventh printing January 1960 Twelfth printing April 1960 Copyright © 1956 by Meridian Books, Inc. Library of Congress catalog card number: 56-10018 Manufactured in the United States of America PDF by (-§ko-)
ONE :TWO: THREE:
9 KAUFMANN: Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre DOSTOEVSKY: Notes from Underground KIERKEGAARD: On Himself 1. On His Mission 2. On His Works 3. On His Mode of Existence 4. "That Individual" NIETZSCHE: "Live Dangerously" 1. "The Challenge of Every Great Philosophy" 2. "The Gay Science" 3. On Free Death 4. The Beginning of The Will to Power 5. From Ecce Homo RILKE: The Notes ofMalte Laurids Brigge KAFKA: Three Parables 1. An Imperial Message 2. Before the Law 3. Couriers JASPERS: Existenzphilosophie 1. On My Philosophy 2. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche 3. The Encompassing HEIDEGGER: The Way Back into the Ground of Metaphysics SARTRE: Existentialism 1. The Wall 2. Self-Deception 3. Portrait of the Antisemite 4. Existentialism is a Humanism CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus 11 52 83 8485 86 92 100 101 104 107 109 111 113 121 123 124 130 131 131 158 184 206 222 223 241 270 287 312 317 321
Notes Sources and Acknowledgments
Some anthologies treat great literature and philosophy as if they could be used to furnish a cultural supermarket where the reader shops around. Of course, it is thereader's right to browse, to skip, and not to read, whether a volume is by a single author or by ten. What matters is that a book should offer, when read straight through, more than the sum of the parts. The present volume is intended to tell a story, and the growing variations of some major themes, the echoes, and the contrasts ought to add not only to the enjoyment but also to the reader'sunderstanding. There are several new translations made especially for this book. Jaspers' essay "On My Philosophy" has been translated by Felix Kaufmann, and I myself have translated the material from Nietzsche, Rilke, and Heidegger. I am deeply indebted to Princeton University for a year's leave of absence and to the Fulbright Commission for a re-search grant which enabled me, among other things, to listento lectures by Jaspers and Heidegger and to talk with them and many of their colleagues and former students. To Heidegger I am also indebted for answering, orally and in writing, questions about his essay which is here offered in English for the first time. My wife, Hazel Kaufmann, has given me invaluable aid and comfort. W K.
Kaufmann: Existentialism from Dostoevsky to SartreExistentialism is not a philosophy but a label for several widely different revolts against traditional philosophy. Most of the living "existentialists" have repudiated this label, and a bewildered outsider might well conclude that the only thing they have in common is a marked aversion for each other. To add to the confusion, many writers of the past have frequently been hailed as members of this...