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Cancers (tumours) are not inherited, nor are they pathogenic.
What is a tumour?

Define pathogen.

Give named examples of the four types of pathogen.

Explain why antibiotics arenot effective against viruses.

Distinguish between bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics.

Outline the emergence of Multiple-Resistant bacteria as a result of overuse of antibioticsand subsequent evolution by natural selection.

How do the skin and mucous membrane act as the body’s primary defense against infection?

Blood clotting can prevent further entry of pathogensinto the blood and stops bleeding.
Draw a simple flowchart to outline blood clotting as a metabolic pathway.
Include the roles of platelets, clotting factors, thrombin, fibrinogen,erythrocytes.

Draw a diagram to show how a phagocyte engulfs a pathogen by phagocytosis.
What is the role of lysozymes in this process?

What is the role of the following types ofcells in defense against infectious diseases?

Phagocytes (macrophages)



Plasma cells

Memory cells

Distinguish between antigens (epitopes) and antibodies.When a pathogen invades an organism, this is called a ‘challenge’
Outline the body’s ‘response’ to this challenge, leading to antibody production.

What is polyclonalselection?

How do antibodies allow the body to defeat a pathogen?

How does clonal selection when fighting a pathogen lead to immunity
against that same pathogen?

Distinguishbetween passive, active, artificial and natural immunity with examples of

Annotate the graph to show how vaccination (immunisation) works.

Name one disease that has beeneradicated through vaccination programmes.

Discuss the benefits and dangers of vaccination programmes.

Benefits Dangers


Define AIDS

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