Artemisa en línea
CONDUCTAS ALIMENTARIAS DE RIESGO E IMAGEN CORPORAL
DE ACUERDO AL ÍNDICE DE MASA CORPORAL EN UNA MUESTRA DE MUJERES ADULTAS DE LA CIUDAD DE
Carmiña Isabel Lora-Cortez*, Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina**
Studies conducted in adolescent and young women have showed that body image perception and dissatisfaction are highly related withrisk eating behaviors, particularly with compensatory behaviors. It has also been found that these women tend to overestimate their body size, showing more dissatisfaction. Many studies on eating disorders have been developed in adolescents, but, what happens with adult women? Adult women show periods of pregnancy, nursing, menstrual disorders and, a decrease in physical activity and, at thepsychological level there is a lack of emotional stability and depression. These episodes in general, have influence in feeding and body image, that could lead to risky eating behaviors (restricted dieting, fasting, skipping meals among others) affecting directly the state of health, because latter they can develop into eating disorders. Undoubtedly, inadequate feeding can cause malnutrition andnutrimental deficiencies, provoking physiological alterations such as osteoporosis, anemia or hypokaliemia, and also, somatic complications during pregnancy, including abortions and low weight in the new born. Objective. To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), risky eating behaviours, body perception and body dissatisfaction in Mexican adult women from 25 to 45 years of age in MexicoCity. Methods. A non probabilistic sample of 659 women from 25 to 45 years of age (X=38.27; SD=4.4) was used. To collect the sample, an area of the Questionnaire for Health and Feeding called scale of risk factors associated to eating disorders (EFRATA) and body image was used. This is a selfreport questionnaire, validated for this population. Its main purpose is to measure risk eating behaviorsand body image. Questions refer to risky eating behaviors (binge eating, compensatory behaviors, restricted dieting, preoccupation about weight and figure), with 4 answering options: 1) Never, 2) Sometimes, 3) Frequently, and 4) Always. Body Image was measured through two dimensions: (a) Body perception was measured through five specific items and (b) Body
dissatisfaction was measured with a ninebody figure scale, from thin to obese. The BMI was obtained from weight and height self-report (BMI=kg/m2). Self report measures of weight and height have been found reliable; as there is a high correlation with data taken directly, the difference between them is 1.14 kg/m², which does not interfere significantly. The cut points recommended by the Expert Committee (OMS), are: low weight from 15to 18.5; normal weight from 18.51 to 24.99; overweight from 25 to 29.99; obesity from 30 to 39.99 and morbid obesity higher than 40. Results. Body Mass Index distribution of the sample was: 1.1% low weight, 53.6% normal weight, 32.3% overweight, 12.4% obesity, and 0.6% of women were morbidly obese. Body perception distribution was: 0.9% very thin, 15.3% thin, 44.4% normal, 32.6% overweight and 6.8%obese. Results related to body dissatisfaction, showed that more than ¾ of the sample was dissatisfied; 70.1% of the women were dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to be thinner and, 8.7% wanted to gain weight. It was found that a large percentage of women (79%) are dissatisfied with their body image. From this percentage 70.1 wanted to be thinner and, 8.7% wanted to gain weight. As tothe relationship between BMI distribution and body dissatisfaction it was found that 14% of underweight and 54.2% normal weight women want to be even thinner. The findings of the study showed that women with higher BMI, displayed more risky eating behaviors. Women with overweight and obesity displayed the higher percentages in binge eating. A Pearson correlation was carried out to look for...