The Human Relations Movement.
Following legalization of union in 1935, management began lookking por new ways of handling employees.
Second, behavior scientist starcalling for more attention to the “human” factor.
Managers who had wated the unions out of their companles called for better human relations and improved working conditions.
The Hawtorne legacy.Do not support initial conclutions about positive effect of supportive supervision.
Money, fear of unemplyment, managerial discipline and high quality rw material turned to be responsible for highoutput in the realy assemby test room experiments.
The Writings of Mayo and Follett.
-Elton Mayo, advised managers to alted to employees emotional needs.
-Mar Parker Follet, saw employees ascomplex combinations of attitudes, beliefs; and needs. She told managers to motivate job performance instead of marely demanding it.
She built a logical bridge between political democratcy and acooperative spririt in the workplace.
McGregor’s Theory Y.
The theory “X”, assumptions were pessimistic and negative and, typical of how managers traditionally perceved employees.
To help managersbreak this negative trdition he formulated Theory “Y”, a modern and positiveset of assumptions about people. He belive managers coul accomplish more through others by viewing them as self-energized,committed, responsible and creative beings.
New Assumptions About Human Nature.
Human relationists belived in the axiom, “a satisfied employee is a hardworking employee”, the linkagee is more complexthat originally thought.
Rather than continuing to view employees as passive conomic beings, managers began to see them as active socil beings and took steps to create more humane work environments.The Quality Movement.
It began during the 1980’s.
Much was written, said and done about improvinng the quality of both goods and services.
Thanks tl the concep of total quality management...