Criminología comparada

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BOOK REVIEW CRIMINOLOGY: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Robert Winslow & Sheldon Zhang INTRODUCTION Because of recent changes in communication, transportation, and commerce, crime has become a global phenomenon. Given that assumption, criminology itself must become global in its scope. This means that comparative criminology, the international study of crime, no longer should be treated as a separatesubject. Instead, criminology at all levels should be comparative in nature. Based upon this assumption, we have designed a text for introductory criminology that is inherently comparative. OVERVIEW To create a comparative text in criminology, it was our goal to compile crime and criminal justice information about all of the countries of the world. Such information we found to be scattered intextbooks, anthologies, journal articles, government reports, and in reports by non-government organizations (NGOs). We have gathered this information and placed it on a Website that will be referred to as the Comparative Criminology Website (CCW). This Website can be viewed at the following URL: http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/rwinslow/index.html The Website, in development over the past eight years,contains qualitative and quantitative information on over 230 countries, including international and domestic databases from the FBI, the NCVS, INTERPOL, and the United Nations. The CCW is a compilation drawn from government publications, which are public domain. The Website is not copyrighted, and will not be, because the purpose of it is to create a research tool that can be drawn upon freely tofacilitate the development of research papers, texts and other media.Permissions are not required for materials quoted from the CCW. We welcome the submission of research papers, which we will publish on the Website, if desired. Many of the country comparisons we make in Criminology: a Global Perspective are drawn from this Website. Others are drawn from textbooks, journal articles, anthologies,and news stories. Some comparisons appear in text boxes accompanying topics that are covered in the text. In addition, country profiles on countries high or low in a given crime and international data analyses are done in chapters pertaining to particular crimes. These are drawn from the CCW and data sets contained within the CCW. We term these data sets collectively the Comparative CriminologyDatabase (CCDB). Thus, our goal has been to develop an introductory criminology text that is not only thorough in its coverage of the usual topics, but, in addition, includes international comparisons throughout the text. By "usual topics," we are referring to definitions, extent and trend statistics, typologies, etiological studies, theories and policy recommendations.

1 Vol. II enero-julio 2009www.somecrimnl.es.tl

In addition to the international comparisons, what is noteworthy about this text is our approach to theory. We provide three introductory chapters (Chapters 3-5). These chapters are comparative and historical in showing how various theories of crime developed. We include a discussion of the social context or "climate of the times" in which a given theory was developed. Wealso provide biographical information on the major theorists. The biographies are interesting and helpful in understanding the personal and social circumstances that helped shaped the theorists' perspectives. Our theoretical analysis, however, does not end with these three chapters. Instead, we continue with the theoretical analysis in each of the subsequent chapters dealing with particular crimes.In many cases, theories have been developed to explain a particular type of crime, such as the "subculture of violence theory" for criminal homicide. In many ways, most of the chapters in this book are devoted to criminological theory. However, once students are exposed to general criminological theories in Chapters 3-5, the remainder of the text is devoted to applying theories to various...
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