Criminologia

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10/28/2009

Chapter 9

Organizational communication.

1. Discuss sender caused barriers, receivers caused barriers, and other barriers in communications.

1) Sender caused barrier – the sender hinders communications when: the sender is not clear about what is to be accomplished with the message: the sender incorrectly assumes that the receiver has the knowledge necessary tounderstand the message and its intend and does not adapt the message to the intended receiver, the sender uses a communication medium not suited for the message; the sender does not develop a mechanism for receiving feedback to determine if the message was understood correctly; the sender does not interpret feedback correctly, or fails to clarify the message on the basis of feedback from thereceiver; the sender uses language that causes the receiver to stop listening, reading, or receiving; the sender improperly analyzes the audience; the sender’s background experiences and attitudes are different from those of the receiver and the sender does not take this into account.

2) Receiver caused barriers – the receiver hinders communication when the receiver is a poor listener, observer,or reader, and therefore misinterprets the meaning of the message; the receiver jumps to conclusions; the receiver hears or sees only certain parts of the message; the receiver tends to reject the messages that contradict his/her own beliefs and assumptions; the receiver has other concerns such as emotional barriers, for example, being mentally preoccupied.

3) Other barrier – some otherbarriers to communications are: noise, temperature, and other physical and distractions; distance, inability to see or hear messages being sent; and sender-receiver relationships, power structure, roles, and personality differences.

2. Identify and describe the four types of organizational communication.

The four types of organizational communication are: 1)downward communication. This typeof communication is used by management for sending orders, directives, goals, policies, and procedures; 2) upward communication. This type of communication involves subordinates initiating communication with administrators; 3) Horizontal communication. This type of communication is communication among organizational communication. This type of communication is communication among organizationalpeers; 4) the grapevine. This is a subject of organizational communication among that transmits informal messages across agency lines.

3. The physical distance between superior and subordinates may impede upward communication. Why?

Communication becomes more difficult and infrequent when superiors are isolated and thus seldom seen or spoken to. In large police organizations, executives maybe located I headquarters or operating center not easily reached by subordinates. In other police agencies executive officers may be remotely place, or executives may hold themselves needlessly inaccessible.

4. What are the major desirable and undesirable traits of the organizational grapevine?

The grapevine can be considered desirable because it gives management insight into employees’attitudes, provides a safety valve for employee emotions, and help spread useful information. Dysfunctional traits include its tendencies to spread rumors and untruths, lack of responsibility to any group or person, and uncontrollability. Attributes of the grapevine, its speed and influence, may work either or the good or detriment of the organization.

5. What some suggestions for dynamicand persuasive oral and written communication?

Some suggestions include: 1 be credible, 2) gear the message to the listener, 3) persuade group members on the benefits of change, 4) use heavy impact and emotion provoking words, 5) back up conclusions with data, 6) minimize language errors and vocalized pauses, 7) write crisp, clear memos and reports, including a front loaded message and 8) use a...
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