Energy in Food
Food supplies energy for all animals—without it we could not live. The quantity of energy stored in food is of great interest to humans. The energy your body needs for running, talking, and thinking comes from the foods you eat. Not all foods contain the same amount of energy, nor are all foods equally nutritious for you. An average person should consume aminimum of 2,000 kilocalories per day. That is equivalent to 8,360 kilojoules. Calories and joules are both units of energy. We will use joules in this lab since it is the accepted SI metric standard. You can determine energy content of food by burning a portion of it and capturing the heat released to a known amount of water. This technique is called calorimetry. The energy content of the food is theamount of heat produced by the combustion of 1 gram of a substance. It is measured in kilojoules per gram (kJ/g).
In this experiment, you will
computer Vernier computer interface Logger Pro Temperature Probe 100 mL graduated cylinder balance food holder two food samples (nut, popcorn, or marshmallow) matches ring stand and 10 cm ring small cansplit 1-hole stopper two stirring rods utility clamp warm and cool water wooden splint two 1-hole rubber stoppers
Biology with Vernier
Use a computer to measure temperature changes. • Monitor the energy given off by food as it burns. • Determine and compare the energy content of different foods.
1. Obtain and wear goggles. 2. Obtaina sample of food and a food holder similar to the one shown in Figure 1. Mount the food onto the food holder so that it can burn without damaging the holder. Find and record the initial mass of the food sample and food holder. CAUTION: Do not eat or drink in the laboratory. 3. Connect the Temperature Probe to the computer interface. Prepare the computer for data collection by opening the file “01Energy in Food” from the Biology with Vernier folder of Logger Pro. 4. Set up the apparatus shown in Figure 1. a. b. c. d. Determine the mass of an empty can. Record the value in Table 1. Place about 50 mL of cold water into the can. Determine and record the mass of the can plus the water. Insert a stirring rod through the holes in the top of the can and hold it in place with two onehole stoppers.Position the can 2.5 cm (~1 inch) above the food sample. e. Use a utility clamp and split stopper to suspend the temperature probe in the water. The probe should not touch the bottom or side of the can. 5. Click Table 1. to begin data collection. Record the initial (minimum) temperature of the water in
6. Remove the food sample from under the can and use a wooden splint to light it. Quicklyplace the burning food sample directly under the center of the can. Stir the water constantly. CAUTION: Keep hair and clothing away from an open flame. 7. If the temperature of the water exceeds 60°C, blow the flame out. Do not stop the computer yet. 8. After 4 minutes, if the food is still burning, blow the flame out. Record the maximum temperature of the water in Table 1. 9. Once the watertemperature begins to decrease, end data collection by clicking 10. Determine the final mass of the food sample and food holder. 11. Place burned food, matches, and wooden splints in the container supplied by your instructor. 12. You can confirm your data by clicking the Statistics button, . The minimum temperature (t2) and maximum temperature (t1) are listed in the floating box. 13. Repeat Steps 4–12for a second food sample. Be sure to use a new 50 mL portion of cold water. .
Biology with Vernier
Energy in Food
Table 1 Measurements Food used Mass of empty can (g) Mass of can plus water (g) Minimum temperature of water (°C) Maximum temperature of water (°C) Initial mass of food (g) Final mass of food (g) Table 2 Calculations Mass of water (g) ∆t of water (°C) ∆mass of...