Enviromental managmet

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UNIT 1.1
The earth its rocks and minerals:
Igneous rocks:
These are rocks formed by fire. Are associated with volcanic activity. Magma from the mantle rises upwards towards the surface formed igneuos rock. Eg;Granite,Basalt.
Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks are made of sediments.Sedimenst are small particles of rock broken.Most of these particles reach the seabed andaccumulate in layers.Eg;Clay,Limestone.
Metamorphic rocks: These are rocks which have been changed by heat and pressure in the earth crust.Eg;Limstone changed into marble and clay turned into slate.
Distribution, Typed and reserves of major minerals:
A mineral is a substance obtained by mining
Methods of search and extraction of rocks and minerals:
    •    Clear the vegetation and remove top soil
    •    Break up and loosen the rock by usinf explosives.
    •    Remove the lossen rock
    •    Put the rock and minerals into tracks.
 *Sinking a vertical shaft down to the rock layercontaining minerals.
*Making a horizontal tunnel following the mineral layer.
*Extracting the minerals by digging done by minerals and machines.
*Bringing the loose rock from the mine and piling it up on waste heaps on the surface.
*Bringing the minerals to the surface, to be transported away in trucks.
Deep mining is dangerous. The tunnel roofs collapse and miners are trapped, injured or killed. Insome mines are problems with gas because is present and could occure fire and explosions. Also Miners could not escape esay so is a big problem.
Unit 1.2
Impacts of the mining enviorments:
After periods of heavy rain the waste heaps can become unstable and flow down  Destroying everythig in their path and convering even larger areas of land. Mining is contaminating also rivers by water flowingfrom old mine working. Fish and many other creatures are killed. Although mining is vital for economic development it is difficult to find any good impacts od mining on the eviormental.
Impacts of mining on the people:
Deep mining and its bad impacts:
Mostly afect the miners. The have to work on dirty dusty and wet conditions. The majority of the miners sufferd injuries because they are expectedto work hard in dangerous conditions. Also mining is un healthy work the air underground is por and causes breathing and chest problems.
Open cast mining impacts:
These more affect people leaving near there is a lot of noyse, Air and visual pollution. Wildlife is driven out of the area.
Mining and it positive impacts:
Mining can benefit the economy of a country and its people.Exportingminerals is a very important way of earn foreign Exchange. The Money earned could be use to improve the quility of life of their people. Although  is a dangerous work is much better paid that farming and other types.
How supply and demand affect mining:
Supply: Refers to the amount of a resource that is known to exist
Demand:Refers to the amount that people need to use.
Economic consequences ofoverexploitation of mineral reources:
They are being used up by present generation faster than they are being formed.Once finished present generation would have to find alternative resources which are more expensive to get.
Conservation of envrionmental damge by mining:
After the holeo n the surface left by mininghas been filled in, bulldozers can be used to level the surface. This is known asLANDSCAPING. This is also an example of RESTORATION because the land is being restored. Farmers may be able to start using the land again. There can be also an expample of RECLAMATION: the land has been reclaimed from minning to be used for farming. LANDFILLING is a cheap and esay way to dispose the waste.
The disposal of waste in landfilling has to be managed carefully otherwise it may cause ,Land...
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