Gerencia de agua

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(Surface Production Operations)

DISCLAIMER This text contains descriptions, statements, equations, procedures, methodology, interpretations, and other written matter and information, hereinafter collectively called "contents," that have been carefully considered and prepared as a matter of general information. The contents are believed to reliably represent situations and conditions thathave occurred or could occur, but are not represented or guaranteed as to the accuracy or application to other conditions or situations. There are many variable conditions in production facility design and related situations, and the authors have no knowledge or control of their interpretation. Therefore, the contents and all interpretations and recommendations made in connection herewith arepresented solely as a guide for the user's consideration, investigation, and verification. No warranties of any kind, whether expressed or implied, are made in connection therewith. The user is specifically cautioned, reminded, and advTised that any use or interpretation of the contents and resulting use or application thereof are made at the sole risk of the user. In production facility design there aremany proprietary designs and techniques. We have tried to show designs and techniques in a generic nature where possible. The user must assure himself that in actual situations it is appropriate to use this generic approach. If the actual situation differs from the generic situation in design or lies outside the bounds of assumptions used in the various equations, the user must modify theinformation contained herein accordingly. In consideration of these premises, any user of the contents agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the authors and publisher from all claims and actions for loss, damages, death, or injury to persons or property.

I

Surface Production Operations
Design of Oil-Handling Systems and Facilities

Ken Arnold Maurice Stewart

SECOND EDITION

SurfaceProduction Operations
VOLUME 1 Design of Oil-Handling Systems and Facilities Copyright © 1989, 1999 by Butterworth-Heinemann. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. For information, please contact: Manager of SpecialSales Butterworth-Heinemann 225 Wildwood Avenue Woburn, MA 01801-2041 Tel: 781-904-2500 Fax: 781-904-2620 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications available, contact our World Wide Web home page at: http://www.bh.com
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Arnold, Ken, 1942Design of oil-handling systems and facilities / Ken Arnold, Maurice Stewart. —2nd ed. p. cm. — (Surface production operations; v. 1) Includes index. ISBN 0-88415-821-7 (alk. paper) 1. Petroleum engineering—Equipment and supplies. 2. Oil fields—Equipment and supplies. 3. Oil fields—Production methods. I. Stewart, Maurice. II. Title. III. Series. TN871.5.A74 1998 665.5—dc21 97-38110

CIP
Printed in the United States of America. Printed on acid-free paper (°o).

iv Contents
Acknowledgments Preface
CHAPTER 1

xi xiii 1

The Production Facility •

Introduction, 1 Making the Equipment Work, 16 Facility Types, 18

CHAPTER 2

Choosing a Process
Introduction, 26 Controlling the Process, 26 Operation of a Control Valve 26, Pressure Control 29, Level Control 30, Temperature Control 30, Flow Control 31 Basic System Configuration, 31 Wellhead and Manifold 31,Separation 31, Oil Treating 38, Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) 40, Pumps 42, Water Treating 43, Compressors 43, Gas Dehydrators 46 Well Testing, 48 Gas Lift, 51 Offshore Platform Considerations, 54 Overview 54, Modular Construction 55, Equipment Arrangement 55
CHAPTER 3

26

Fluid Properties
Introduction, 58 Basic Principles, 58 Specific Gravity and Density 58, Viscosity 64
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