Intel

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232, chapter 6

Mortality differentials
-age
-sex
-socioeconomic status (education, income and occupation)
-marital status
-ethnicity/race

Fertility transition
-shift from high fertilityto low
-to control fertility does not necessarily mean to limit it

How high could fertility levels be
-fertility: the of children born to women
-high fertility society: refers to a populationin which most women have several children
-fertility has 2 parts: biological and social

Biological component
-fecundity: the physical ability to reproduce
-7% of American couples are infertile-impaired fecundity: if a women believes it is impossible for her to have a baby, if a physician has told her not too bc of health risks or if she has not used contraception and still cant getpregnant for at least 36 months
-fecundity increases from the onset of menstration and then declines to menopause
-ruth kistler , is the oldest mother in the world who gave birth at the age of 57
-Russianwoman gave birth to 69 children
-the average women could bear a child ever 2.2 years for a potential total of 16 children per women
-in some sub Saharan African counties such as Nigeria andcameroon, more than 1/3rd of the women of reproductive are infertile
-drop in fertility rates of US blacks btw, 1880s and early 1930swas due to the health conditions of black women
-natural fertility: beendefined as the level of reproduction that exists in the absence of deliberate fertility control

The social component
-hunter and gatherer societies were motivated to space children several yearsapart thus keeping fertility lower
-agricultural societies: improved nutrition, thus better chances of becoming pregnant and more children were seen as advantageous
-urban industrial andpost-industrial societies: low morality, and high standard of living, reduced demand for children
-the hutterites: worlds most famous high fertility group, a religious group who lived in agarian communities ,...
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